Fethiye Web Tasarım

SEO TREND YAZILIM Türkiye’de Dijital Ajans olarak kanıtlamış aynı zamanda yurt dışında Dünya ülkeleri firmalarına başarılarını gerçekleştirmiştir. Antalya Fethiye Bölgesinde Web tasarım projesinin bu aşaması tel çerçevelerle başlar. Bir tel çerçeve, her web sayfasındaki metin, resim, video ve diğer gerekli öğelerin yaklaşık konumunu ve ağırlığını gösteren görsel bir sunumdur. Buradan, gizli soslarımızı kullanırız ve gerçek tasarım düzenlerini yaratırız. İstemciyi gerçek renkleri, grafikleri ve metni gösteren jpg dosyaları ile sunuyoruz.
Web tasarımcısı HTML, PHP, ya da sunucu üzerinde erişilen konum zaman statik metin belgeleri çıktılar bir dil kullanarak olmalıdır. Onlar değilseniz, web sitenizin arama için optimize edilemez.

Fethiye Web Tasarım bu aşamada sizlere en iyi tasarımı yapıp Profesyonel ekiplerimiz tarafından en iyi hizmeti yapmaktadır. S-T-Y Sosyal Medya, SEO, Dijital Pazarlama gibi bir çok alanda uzmanlaşmış ve arama motorlarında üst seviyelere çıkmış müşterilerinin memnuniyeti ile bir çok başarıya imza atmıştır. Web sitenizi hızlı ve verimli bir şekilde güncellemek için bilmeniz gereken her şeyi içeren bir belge geliştiriyoruz. Ekibinizin değişim ve eklemeler yapması konusunda rahat ve yetkin olmasını sağlamak için ekran paylaşımı oturumları sunuyoruz. Ayrıca WordPress, eklentileri ve daha fazlasını güncelliyoruz. Web sitenizin mükemmel şekilde çalıştığından emin olmak için her zaman telefon veya e-posta yoluyla bize ulaşın. Fethiye’de, yüz yüze eğitebiliriz.

Arama motorlarında web sitem görünecekmi?

Arama motorlarına göndermek için para güzel bir miktar ücret bazı servisler vardır. Google, Yahoo ve Bing için bazı söz sunulması. Diğerleri teslim söz “200 + arama motorları.” Daha hala sitenizde birden çok kez teslim edeceğiz söylüyorlar.

Bir arama motoruna sitenize göndermek için birine ödeme yapmayın. Herkes bir özellikli hizmet olarak arama teslim vurgular, bu SEO için o kişinin bağlı olmamalıdır bir işareti olmalıdır. Onlar büyük bir web tasarımcısı olmak, ama onlar değil pazarlamacı arama olabilir. Arama motoru gönderimler birkaç yıl önce çalışmış olabilir, ancak bu gün önemli değil. diğer siteler mayın bağlantılı çünkü benim web sitem ucunda herhangi bir başvuru olmadan büyük arama motorlarında yer aldı. Arama motorları daha sonra, bu bağlantıları takip benim içerik endeksli.

Fethiye E ticaret Web Sitesi

Bir e-ticaret işi olarak, müşterilerin alışveriş deneyimini gerçek ve orijinal hale getirebilecek tüm özelliklere sahip bir web sitesi oluşturmak çok zor. İnsanlar veya çevrimiçi ziyaretçiler genellikle yaratıcı ancak işlevsel özelliklere sahip bir web sitesi için düşme eğilimi gösterir ve alışveriş zamanlarını veya deneyimlerini layık veya tatmin edici hale getirebilir. Günümüzün e-ticaret sitesi tasarımı şirketi, çevrimiçi pazarın etrafında dönen en son trendler ve bilgi ile güncellenmektedir. Müşterilerin dikkatini çekebilecek tasarımların veya şablonların, piyasaya yayılan kitlenin ilgisini çağıran özelliklerin veya düğmelerin farkındadırlar. Aşağıda, e-ticaret web sitesi tasarımı hizmetleriyle iletişime geçmenin birkaç avantajı bulunmaktadır.

 

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REFERANSLARIMIZDAN BAZILARI

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Antalya Fethiye  E-ticaret Web Tasarım

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Fethiye  E-ticaret Web Tasarım Firması

Fethiye  E-ticaret Web Site

 

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E-ticaret İşletmeniz için Çevrimiçi Mağaza Oluşturmak için neler yapmamız gerekir

E-ticaret çok geniş bir alan olduğundan, her seferinde yüz yüzde sonuç beklemek her zaman mümkün değildir. Bugün bile, işlerinde çok sayıda engelle karşılaşan bir dizi e-ticaret mağazası sahibi var.

Bazı girişimciler online mağaza yapımcılarını seçtiler ve satışları iyileştirmek, zamandan tasarruf etmek ve manuel hataları azaltmak için her zaman daha iyi bir seçenek olduğunu deneyimlediler.

“Çevrimiçi mağaza oluşturmak için uygun bir platform nasıl seçilir?” Girişimcilerin seçim yapmadan önce sordukları en yaygın soru.

Her girişimcinin bir e-ticaret platformu seçmeden önce sorması gereken sorulara bir göz atalım.

1. Platform esnek mi?

E-ticaret ortamının karmaşık gereksinimleri, platformun son derece esnek olmasını zorunlu kılmaktadır. E-ticaret eğilimlerine göre benzersiz gerekliliklere bağlı değişiklikler, çok fazla zaman harcamadan kolayca yapılabileceği için özelleştirmeler gereklidir. Değiştirilmesi kolay ve arka uçta gerekli değişikliklerin yapılması için esnekliği sunan özelleştirilebilir bir platformun yanı sıra, ön uç olması gereken bir özelliktir. Çevrimiçi mağazaların karmaşık akışını idare etmek için esneklik sağlayan çevrimiçi mağaza üreticileri, çeşitli şekillerde size yardımcı olabilir.

2. Platform mobil kullanıcılar için uygun mu?

M-ticaretten elde edilen gelirin 2020 yılına kadar 37.96 milyar ABD dolarına ulaşacağı tahmin edilmektedir. Bu nedenle, mobil kullanıcıların göz ardı edilmesi online mağazanızın satışını etkileyebilir. Satışlarınızı artırmanıza, önemli trafik çekmenize ve mobil kullanıcıların sadık bir müşteri tabanını oluşturmanıza yardımcı olacak bir mobil hazır platform seçtiğinizden emin olun. Mobil kullanıma hazır bir site, alışveriş yapmanın en uygun yolu olarak kabul edilir ve daha iyi sıralamalar ve daha yüksek trafik için Google tarafından da önceliklendirilir.

3. Platform güvenliği sağlıyor mu?

SSL şifreleme, captcha, kullanıcı doğrulamaları, çevrimiçi mağaza yapımcılarının davetsiz misafirlere ve spam yapanlara karşı güvenliği sağlayan tekniklerden bazılarıdır. Bir çevrimiçi mağazayı ziyaret eden müşteriler, kart ayrıntılarının gizli kalmasını bekler. Çevrimiçi alışveriş sepetinin güvenliğini sağlayan, spam botlardan gelen saldırıları engelleyen ve gerçek bir müşteri grubuna sahip olmanıza yardımcı olan, listelenen tüm özellikleri sağlayan bir platform seçin.

4. Lojistik entegrasyonunu sağlıyor mu?

E-ticaret bir lojistik ortağı olmadan eksiktir, çünkü bir müşteri ne alırsa alsın, güvenli bir şekilde kapılarına ulaşmalıdır. Lojistik ortaklarıyla entegrasyon sunarak ürünlerinizi müşterilere ulaştırmanın en iyi yolunu sunan e-ticaret platformları, her zaman pastadaki kirazdır. Bir lojistik sağlayıcısına entegrasyon sağlayan bir çevrimiçi mağaza oluşturucu seçin ve ürünlerinizi çeşitli yerlere göndermenize ve aynı zamanda gerekli olan manuel çabaları azaltmanıza yardımcı olun.

Listelenen kilit noktalardan ayrı olarak, e-ticaret platformları aşağıdaki gibi faydalar sağlar:

1. Tüm zorluklarla ilgili size rehberlik edecek müşteri desteği.

2. En iyi Google arama sonuçlarında sıralamak için SEO özellikleri.

3. Birden fazla ödeme seçeneği ile daha hızlı ve daha kolay kontrol için önceden geliştirilmiş arabaları.

Teknik olmayan kullanıcılar için 4. Kolay kullanımlı platform.

İnanılmaz özelliklerle birlikte, çevrimiçi mağaza üreticileri de işinizi yepyeni bir başarı seviyesine taşımanın gücüne sahiptir. Pazar size hizmet vermeye hazır bir dizi e-ticaret platformunda su basıyor. Hippo Innovation’ı e-ticaret platformunuz olarak seçebilir ve çevrimiçi mağazanızı kullanıcı dostu kontrol panelinden tasarlamaya başlayabilirsiniz.

 

Web Siteniz için Ortak Araçlar

Geçmişte, web sitenizin uygulamayla ilgili düşünmeniz gereken bazı bölümlerine odaklandım. Şimdi yapacağım şey, web sitelerinde yaygın olan sayfa ve bölümlerin kısa bir özetini vermektir.

  • Ana Sayfa
    Bu sayfada, bir web sitesi ziyaretçisinin bakabileceği ve sitenin ne hakkında olduğu hakkında çok hızlı bir şekilde fikir sahibi olabileceği, bir çeşit madde işaretli liste ile birlikte kısa bir açıklayıcı paragraf veya iki tane olmalıdır. Bu, başka şeylerin yanı sıra Main veya Welcome olarak da adlandırılabilir.
  • Hakkımızda
    Bu sayfa şirket hakkında genel bir bakış sunmaktadır. Personel oldukça küçükse, personel bilgileri bu sayfada da yer alabilir. Bir personelin durumunda, bu sayfa Hakkımda olarak adlandırılabilir. Şirket, Şirket Tarihçesi veya sadece Tarih hakkında da bilinebilir.
  • Projeler
    Bu sizin ve şirketinizin yaptığı geçmiş çalışmaları listelemek için bir sayfadır. Basit bir listeden her projenin ayrıntılı açıklamalarına kadar her şey olabilir. Bu da Portföy olarak adlandırılabilir.
  • Personel
    İyi bir kadroya sahipseniz, onlar hakkındaki bilgileri Hakkımızda sayfasından ayırabilir ve onlara kendi bölümlerini verebilirsiniz. Bu, basit bir listeden her personel üyesinin ayrı bir sayfasına kadar her şey olabilir. Bu da bir organizasyonun Yönetim Kurulu olması durumunda sıklıkla kullanılır.
  • Linkler
    Bir link sayfası oldukça yaygındır. Ancak, bu sayfaya dikkat etmelisiniz. Çoğu durumda, kişisel bağlantılar sayfasından çok farklı olmalıdır. Bu aynı zamanda Ortak olarak da adlandırılabilir.
  • İletişim
    E-postanızın (veya bir formun), telefon numaralarınız, posta adresiniz vb.
  • Yer
    Eğer bir harita ile birlikte gerçek yön vermek için ayrı bir yer istiyorsanız, bunu koymak için harika bir yerdir. Ayrıca, çevrimiçi harita web sitelerine, genellikle doğrudan bulunduğunuz yere yönlendirmek için de bağlantılar ekleyebilirsiniz. Bu aynı zamanda Harita veya Yol Tarifi olarak da adlandırılabilir.
  • Haberler
    Bu, işletmeniz, web siteniz veya muhtemelen her ikisinde de en son bilgiler için bir sayfadır. Bu, posta gönderdiğiniz bir bültenin kopyaları da olabilir. Daha fazla ve daha sık, bloglar daha resmi bir haber bölümünün yerini alıyor.
  • SSS
    Aynen söylediğiniz gibi, iş ve web siteniz hakkında Sıkça Sorulan Sorular. Başlangıçta, bu en sık sorulan sorular olduğunu düşündüğünüz ile doldurulmalıdır. Ancak zaman geçtikçe, sık sık karşılaştığınız sorularla güncelleyebilirsiniz.
  • Galeri
    Bu, fiziksel konumunuzun resimlerinden ürününüzün resimlerine kadar her şey olabilir. Ayrıca Fotoğraf veya Resimler olarak da bilinir.
  • Sanal Tur
    Eğer basit bir galeri yeterli değilse, sanal bir tur web sitenizin ziyaretçilerine, fiziksel konumunuzda gerçekten dolaştığınızı hissettirebilir. Bu resimler kadar basit olabilir ya da tek bir yerde durup etrafınıza bakabileceğiniz daha karmaşık Sanal Tur teknolojisinden faydalanabilir.
  • Takvim
    Tüm işletmeler bir takvim gerektirmese de, çoğu da öyle. Bu, gerçek bir ızgara benzeri takvimden etkinliklerin basit bir listesine kadar her şey olabilir. Gelecek Etkinlikler olarak da adlandırılır.
  • Basın
    Siz ya da işletmenizin herhangi bir yayında veya başka bir web sitesinde yer alması durumunda, kendi web siteniz bunu göstermek için iyi bir yerdir. Burada çevrimiçi makalelere makaleler ve linkler var. Bu bölüm ayrıca Medya olarak da bilinebilir.

Bunlar, dikkate almanız gereken daha yaygın web sitesi bölümlerinden bazılarıdır. Her web sitesinin muhtemelen o şirkete veya en azından bu sektöre özgü diğer bölümleri olacaktır. Unutma, gökyüzü sınırdır.

 

Pendik Web Tasarım

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Domain değeri hesaplama

Bir alan adının değeri, altı veya yedi rakam aralığında bir kaç dolardan sayılara kadar değişebilir. Birçok yönden web’in emlak piyasası gibidir; Harika bir fırsat yakalayabilenler, sonunda doğru alıcı için paha biçilemez bir alan satın alabilirler .

Zorluk, belirli bir alan adının gerçek değerini nasıl hesaplayacağınızdır. Bir şirketin işleriyle son derece alakalı bir alan adı için 200.000 dolar ödediğiyle ilgili her zaman rapor var, ancak bu sayıya nasıl ulaşıldı? Ve alanın yenileme maliyetleri 15 $ / yıl olacak olduğunda bu yüksek yatırımın değerini ne yapar?

Sonuçta, bir alan adı, bir alıcının bunun için ödeme yapmaya istekli olduğu her şeye değerdir. Bu fiyatı belirlemek, boyu, dili, eğilimleri ve demografiyi içeren sayısız katkıda bulunan faktörlerle birlikte bir sanat biçimidir.

Satılan en pahalı alan adları, ekli çılgın değerlere sahiptir. Sigorta.com altı yıl önce 35,6 milyon dolara satıldı. Internet.com 18 milyon dolara satıldı. Hotels.com 11 milyon dolara satıldı. Elbette, hepsi sözlük kelimeler. Ardından, 360 milyon dolarlık satış, 4.6 milyon dolar için IG.com ve Facebook’un FB.com’u 8,5 milyon dolar karşılığında satın alması gibi şeyler var. Facebook’tan önce, bir alandaki rastgele harfleri f ve b’nin çok fazla olacağını kim düşünebilirdi?

Domain değeri hesaplama yapmak için aşağıdaki linkten bilgi alabilirsiniz.

http://www.calculatorweb.com

E-Ticaret Web Sitesi Tasarımı Hizmetleri

Bir e-ticaret işi olarak, müşterilerin alışveriş deneyimini gerçek ve orijinal hale getirebilecek tüm özelliklere sahip bir web sitesi oluşturmak çok zor. İnsanlar veya çevrimiçi ziyaretçiler genellikle yaratıcı ancak işlevsel özelliklere sahip bir web sitesi için düşme eğilimi gösterir ve alışveriş zamanlarını veya deneyimlerini layık veya tatmin edici hale getirebilir. Günümüzün e-ticaret sitesi tasarımı şirketi, çevrimiçi pazarın etrafında dönen en son trendler ve bilgi ile güncellenmektedir. Müşterilerin dikkatini çekebilecek tasarımların veya şablonların, piyasaya yayılan kitlenin ilgisini çağıran özelliklerin veya düğmelerin farkındadırlar. Aşağıda, e-ticaret web sitesi tasarımı hizmetleriyle iletişime geçmenin birkaç avantajı bulunmaktadır.

Eşsiz Fikirler

Bugünün E-ticaret siteleri ekstra bir şey talep ediyor; Her zaman diğerlerinden en iyi şekilde yararlanmak için bazı benzersiz özelliklere ihtiyaç duyarlar. Birçok tasarım şirketi, bu tür siteleri daha duyarlı ve kullanıcı dostu hale getirmek için yeni ve en yeni fikirleri ele geçirmek için beceri ve yeteneklere sahiptir.

Profesyonel olarak adlandırılan takım

Farklı işletmeler için en iyi neyin uygun olacağını bilen bir güç anlaşması uzmanları ekibine sahip oldukları için, bu tür hizmetlerle bağlantı kurmanın birçok faydası vardır. Müşterinin zihnini ve özlem duydukları çıktının dökülme kabiliyetini anlamak için bir şöhrete sahipler.

Teknik Bilgiler ve Araçlar

Kodların ve programlamanın teknik bilgisine sahip olmayan veya görkemli bir web sitesi hazırlamak için temel araçlarla nasıl baş edeceğini bilmeyen bir tasarımcı yoktur. Bu servisler, canlı teknik bilgiyle eğlenen insanlara sahiptir ve eldeki en iyi çıktıyı elde etmek için özel araçlara ve yazılımlara sahiptir.

İnsanları Tutabilen Özellikler

İnsanlar için, çevrimiçi alışveriş deneyimi, onu değerli ve kalabalığın dışına çıkarabilecek tüm özellik ve özelliklere sahip olduğunda tamamlanır. Kutudan veya alışveriş sepetlerinden veya resimlerden detaylı açıklama ve diyalog kutusu, insanları uzun süre tutmak için bir zorunluluktur. Web sitesi tasarım tekniklerinde her zaman yeni up-up değerleri vardır ve bu ajanslar her zaman müşterilerini daha iyi hizmet etmenin farkındadır.

Güncel web sitesi hizmetleri de sürekli olarak yapay zeka, yani yapay zeka konularında ilerliyor ve web sitelerinin her zaman talep ettiği mevcudiyeti sürdürmesine yardımcı olabilecek yolları geliştiriyor.

Hand-Colored Photographs by Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers

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Although Wallace Nutting was widely recognized as the country’s leading producer of hand-colored photographs during the early 20th century, he was by no means the only photographer selling this style of picture. Throughout the country literally hundreds of regional photographers were selling hand-colored photographs from their home regions or travels. The subject matter of these photographers was very comparable to Nutting’s, including Interior, Exterior, Foreign, and Miscellaneous Unusual scenes. The key determinants of value include the collectability of the particular photographer, subject matter, size, and of course condition. Keep in mind that only the rarest pictures, in the best condition, will bring top prices. Discoloration and/or damage to the picture or matting can reduce value significantly.

Major Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers: Several photographers operated large businesses and, although not as large or well-known as Nutting, they sold a substantial volume of pictures which can still be readily found today. The vast majority of their work was photographed in their home regions and sold primarily to local residents or visiting tourists. And it should come as little surprise that 3 of the major Wallace Nutting-Like photographers… David Davidson, Fred Thompson, and Charles Sawyer…each had ties to Nutting.

  • David Davidson: Second to Nutting in overall production, Davidson worked primarily in the Rhode Island and Southern Massachusetts area. While a student at Brown University around 1900, Davidson learned the art of hand-colored photography directly from Nutting, who happened to be the Minister at Davidson’s Providence RI church. After Nutting moved to Southbury in 1905, Davidson graduated from Brown and started a successful photography business in Providence which he operated until his death in 1967.
  • Charles Sawyer: A father & son team, Charles H. Sawyer and Harold B. Sawyer, operated the very successful Sawyer Art Company from 1903-1970’s. Beginning in Farmington ME, the Sawyer Art Company moved to Concord NH in 1920 to be nearer their primary market of New Hampshire’s White Mountains. Charles Sawyer briefly worked for Nutting in 1902-03 while living in southern Maine. Sawyer’s production volume ranks #3 behind Nutting and Davidson.
  • Fred Thompson: Frederick H. Thompson and Frederick M. Thompson were another father and son team that operated the Thompson Art Company (TACO) from 1908-1923, working primarily in the Portland, ME area. We know that Thompson and Nutting had collaborated because Thompson widely marketed an Interior scene he had taken in Nutting’s Southbury home. The production volume of the Thompson Art Company ranks #4 behind Nutting, Davidson, and Sawyer.
  • Charles Higgins: Working out of Bath Maine, some of Higgins finest pictures rivaled Nutting’s best. No firm connection has been found between Higgins and Nutting.

Minor Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers: Hundreds of other smaller local and regional photographers attempted to market hand-colored pictures comparable to Wallace Nutting’s during the 1900-1930’s time period. Although quite attractive, most were not as appealing to the general public as Wallace Nutting pictures. However, as the price of Wallace Nutting pictures has escalated, the work of these lesser-known Wallace Nutting-Like photographers have become increasingly collectible.

A partial listing of some of these minor Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers include: Babcock; J.Carleton Bicknell; Blair; Ralph Blood (Portland, ME); Bragg; Brehmer; Brooks; Burrowes; Busch; Royal Carlock; Pedro Cacciola; Croft; Currier; Depue Bros; Derek; Dowly; Eddy; May Farini (hand-colored Colonial lithographs); Geo. Forest; Gandara; H. Marshall Gardner (Nantucket, Bermuda, Florida); Gibson; Gideon; Gunn; Bessie Pease Gutmann (hand-colored Colonial Lithographs); Edward Guy; Harris; C. Hazen; Knoffe; F. Jay Haynes (Yellowstone Park); Margaret Hennesey; Hodges; Homer; Krabel; Kattleman; La Bushe; Lake; Lamson (Portland ME); M. Lightstrum; Machering; Rossiler; Mackinae; Merrill; Meyers; William Moehring; Moran; Murrey; Lyman Nelson; J. Robinson Neville (New England); Patterson; Owen Perry; Phelps; Phinney; Reynolds; F. Robbins; Royce; Fred’k Scheetz (Phila, PA); Shelton; Harry L. Standley (Colorado); Stott; Summers; Esther Svenson; Florence Thompson; Thomas Thompson; M.A. Trott; Sanford Tull; Underhill; Villar; Ward; Wilmot; Edith Wilson; Wright.

The same guidelines that apply to Nutting pictures typically apply to Nutting-Like pictures as well:

  • Exterior Scenes are the most common.
  • Some photographers sold colonial Interior scenes as well.
  • Subject Matter, Condition, and Size are all important determinants of value.

References Books:

  • The Collectors Guide to Early 20th Century Hand-Painted Photography, by Michael Ivankovich, 250 pgs, illustrated with pricing information.
  • The Hand-Painted Photographs of Charles Henry Sawyer, by Carol Begley Gray, Michael Ivankovich & John Peters, 60 pgs, illustrated with pricing information.

The Wallace Nutting Collector’s Club: Established in 1973, the Wallace Nutting Collectors Club holds annual conventions, usually in the northeastern portion of the country. Since there are no collectors clubs specifically dedicated to the works of any of the other photographers, collectors generally gravitate to the Wallace Nutting Collectors Club for information on early 20th century hand-colored photography.

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Source by Michael Ivankovich

Collecting Masterworks Is Not an Infallible Art – The Business of Art Must Be Infallible

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Collecting masterworks is anything but an infallible art. But the business of art must be infallible. Where you buy the piece of art is just as important as what you buy. A reputable source that will stand behind what they sell is an imperative.

A few years ago, I worked for a major retail gallery and we made a purchase from a major European auction house. Normally, their documentation is impeccable. The fact that it was not correct and that they stood behind their mistake only verifies their reputation and their credibility.

The piece in question was a woodcut from the print oeuvre of Albrecht Durer. Specifically, it was the Birth of a Virgin (M. 192 B. 80) from Albrecht Durer’s great woodcut cycle, the Life of a Virgin.

It was bought as a Meder A impression before the 1511 edition with Latin text on the verso. The image was perfectly documented in Joseph Meder’s catalogue raisonne, Durer-Katalog, Ein Handbuch Uber Albrecht Durer’s Stiche, Radierungen, Holzschnitte, Deren Zustande, Ausgaben und Wasserzeichenn, as being:

Clear, clean, and with full borders, before the crack and the defective shawl of the woman sitting on the left. Printed before the Italian journey.

Since Joseph Meder did not differentiate which Italian journey, it had to be printed before 1510 at the very least.

The description from the auction house’s catalogue described the masterwork as being printed on laid paper, not having a watermark (which is not rare) and having two collectors’ stamps on the verso from previous owners (which I honestly do not remember what they were).

The woodcut was a beautiful piece of art. It was exactly as the auction house described. In short, it looked perfect!

So what was the problem? To be honest, I do not know why I had a problem with it, but I was having one of Malcolm Gladwell’s blink experiences.

I put it under a light table again; and, there was a watermark that was not described in the auction house’s description. After further review, I realized it was a watermark that carried an incredible history in its own right.

The watermark was from the famed paper house of J. Honig and Zoonen, which was the paper used to print the broadsides of the Declaration of Independence – in 1776.

I asked myself (rhetorically), how can a Meder A impression before Latin text from Albrecht Durer’s great woodcut cycle, the Life of a Virgin, which was printed before the Italian journey (1510) have a watermark from a paper house that did not exist until two hundred sixty-six years later?

Aside from his many other accomplishments, unless Albrecht Durer was also capable of time travel, a Meder A impression of the Birth of a Virgin before the Latin text edition of 1511 with a J. Honig and Zoonen watermark was simply impossible.

Quite a conundrum. If the auction house did not honor its mistake, this certainly would have made matter worse.

However, this was not the case. As soon as the auction house was contacted, it immediately refunded the our money with a sincere apology.

We continued to do business with the auction house because they stood behind what they sold.

So even though collecting masterworks is not an infallible art, the business of art must be infallible.

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Source by B. Mathew Are

Patent Administration in India

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The administration of patent related matters in India is looked after by Patents and Trademarks Office. This office comes under the purview of Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, which falls under the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. The Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks is responsible for administrative processes related to Intellectual Property Rights including Patents. There are four patent offices located at four different places in India to facilitate filing of patent applications among Indian researchers and scientists. The head office of Patents is located at Kolkata whereas Brand offices are located at Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai.

These four offices have jurisdiction over different states of the country. The hierarchy of Patent office includes Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks who is supported by Senior Joint Controller of patents and Designs. Joint Controller of Patents and Designs reports to Senior Joint Controller. Joint controller monitors the functions of Deputy Controllers who monitors Assistant controller of Patents, Designs and Trademarks.

The examination of patent applications is carried out by Patent Examiners. The government of India has set up a Patent Information System (PIS) at Nagpur that provides services for patents and patent search. PIS provides information to researchers and scientists. Intellectual Property Training Institute (IPTI) was established in 2002. IPTI imparts training to personnel engaged in the field of Intellectual Property and also conducts awareness programmes for attorney and researchers.

Patent Office conducts Patent Agent examination twice a year. A successful candidate then can work as an approved Patent agent. The examination is conducted at Head Office and Three regional office.

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Source by Manthan Janodia

The First-Timer’s Guide To Camping On The Nueces River

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Camping along the Nueces River means becoming acquainted with the outdoors & enjoying some might fine Nueces River cabins. Campers are now spoiled with camp sites that can cater to them in a way that makes them feel as though they never left home. Factor in average water temperatures in the low 70s and a length of over 300 miles, and there’s a lot to excite anyone thinking about heading to the Nueces River.

Though some are veterans of the river cabin experience, there are many more who are facing their first time outdoors. As the river’s name entails (a loose translation of ‘nueces’ would be ‘nuts’), first-timers might feel a little crazy & out of their comfort zone. But as most travel experts will tell you, when you’re traveling in the Texas Hill Country along the Nueces River, you just need to keep in mind a few general guidelines for getting the most out of your trip.

For instance, the cardinal rule of all trip planning is booking as early as possible. Camping, according to many travel experts, is enjoying a high degree of popularity. This means that if you wait too long, you could lose out on the cabin of your choice. After all, the Nueces River has been traced to European maps of the area dating back to the 1500s, so the secret of its wonders is out. As you start your planning, reference local city websites for event calendars & if you have time, call the chamber of commerce to see if there are times during the year (i.e., Spring Break or Memorial Day) that could pose scheduling problems.

You also need to be willing to be adventurous. Don’t just enjoy the splendor of your well-appointed cabin. Enjoy nature! Your proximity to the Nueces allow you to fish, swim, or go kayaking. You might even dip your toes in for a refreshing change of pace. Keep in mind that its waters are considered by many wildlife enthusiasts as some of the clearest in Texas. Visitors to Garner State Park in Concan, TX, for example, feel that their access to the Nueces River is what makes the trip complete. Don’t get left out of all the fun.

One thing to keep in mind is that access to area surrounding the rivers is likely on private property. This actually proves to be beneficial both to visitors & the environment because of the tremendous conservation effort made by the property owners. For example, In keeping with the notion good stewardship, Uvalde County has partnered with the HEB/Central Market Keep Texas Waterways Clean Program and invites volunteers to earn money for charity by cleaning the rivers in the area.

A stay in one of many Nueces River cabins may be the ultimate preferred getaway for you & your family. The only thing standing between you and a love of the outdoors is taking the first step. Don’t miss out!

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Source by Morris Raymond

The History of Long Island MacArthur Airport

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Introduction

Long Island alanya escort MacArthur Airport, located on 1,310 acres in Suffolk County, is the region’s only commercial service facility which has, for most of its existence, struggled with identity and purpose.

Its second–and oval-shaped–50,000 square-foot passenger terminal, opened in 1966 and sporting two opposing, ramp-accessing gates, had exuded a small, hometown atmosphere-so much so, in fact, that scenes from the original Out-of-Towners movie had been filmed in it.

Its subsequent expansion, resulting in a one thousand percent increase in passenger terminal area and some two million annual passengers, had been sporadic and cyclic, characterized by new airline establishment which had always sparked a sequence of passenger attraction, new nonstop route implementation, and additional carriers, before declining conditions had initiated a reverse trend. During cycle peaks, check-in, gate, and ramp space had been at a premium, while during troughs, a pin drop could be heard on the terminal floor.

Its Catch-22 struggle had always entailed the circular argument of carriers reluctant to provide service to the airport because of a lack of passengers and passengers reluctant to use the airport because of a lack of service.

This, in essence, is the force which shaped its seven-decade history. And this, in essence, is Long Island MacArthur Airport’s story.

1. Origins

The 1938 Civil Aeronautics Act, under Section 303, authorized federal fund expenditure for landing areas provided the administrator could certify “that such landing areas were reasonably necessary for use in air commerce or in the interests of national defense.”

At the outbreak of World War II, Congress appropriated $40 million for the Development of Landing Areas for National Defense or “DLAND,” of which the Development Civil Landing Areas (DCLA) had been an extension. Because civil aviation had been initially perceived as an “appendage” of military aviation, it had been considered a “segment” of the national defense system, thus garnering direct federal government civil airport support. Local governments provided land and subsequently maintained and operated the airports. Construction of 200 such airfields began in 1941.

A Long Island regional airport, located in Islip, had been one of them. On September 16 of that year, the Town of Islip–the intended owner and operator of the initially named Islip Airport–sponsored the project under an official resolution designated Public Law 78-216, providing the land, while the federal government agreed to plan and build the actual airport. The one-year, $1.5 million construction project, initiated in 1942, resulted in an airfield with three 5,000-foot runways and three ancillary taxiways. Although it had fulfilled its original military purpose, it had always been intended for public utilization.

Despite increased instrument-based flight training after installation of instrument landing system (ILS) equipment in 1947, the regional facility failed to fulfill projected expectations of becoming New York’s major airport after the recent construction of Idlewild. Losing Lockheed as a major tenant in 1950, the since-renamed MacArthur Airport, in honor of General Douglas MacArthur, would embark on a long development path before that would occur.

2. Initial Service

A 5,000-square-foot passenger terminal and restaurant, funded by the federal government, had been constructed in 1949. Infrastructurally equipped, the airport, surrounded by local community growth, sought its first public air service by petitioning the Civil Aeronautics Board. Islip had attempted to attract scheduled airline service as far back as 1956, and this ultimately took the form of Gateway Airlines three years later when it had commenced operations, on an air taxi level, with a fleet of 11-passenger de Havilland Doves and 15-passenger de Havilland Herons to Boston, Newark, and Washington. Inadequate financing, however, had led to its premature termination only eight months later.

The airport, which only had 20 based aircraft at this time, annually fielded some 30,000 movements. Allegheny Airlines subsequently received full scheduled passenger service route authority from the CAB in 1960 and inaugurated four daily Convair- and Martinliner round-trips to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington in September, carrying more than 19,000 passengers in 1961, its first full year of operations.

Two years later, the FAA opened a New York Air Route Traffic Control Center and a seven-floor control tower, and in 1966, a $1.3 million, 50,000 square-foot oval terminal replaced the original rectangular facility.

Mohawk, granted the second CAB route authority that year, inaugurated Fairchild FH-227 service to Albany, and the two scheduled airlines carried some 110,000 passengers from the since renamed Islip MacArthur Airport by 1969. The 210 based aircraft recorded 240,000 yearly movements.

The runways and taxiways were progressively expanded, partly in response to Eastern and Pan Am’s designation of the airport as an “alternate” on their flight plans.

3. First Major Carrier Service

Long envisioned as a reliever airport to JFK and La Guardia, which would provide limited, but important nonstop service to key US cities and hubs, such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, Chicago, and the major Florida destinations, the Long Island airport urgently needed additional, major-airline service, but this goal remained elusive.

The cycle, however, had been broken on April 26, 1971, when American Airlines had inaugurated 727-100 “Astrojet” service to Chicago-O’Hare, Islip’s first pure-jet and first “trunk” carrier operation, permitting same-day, round-trip business travel and eliminating the otherwise required La Guardia commute. Because of American’s major-carrier prestige, it had attracted both attention and passengers, indicating that Islip had attained “large airport” status, and the Chicago route, now the longest nonstop one from the air field, had provided a vital lifeline to a primary, Midwestern city and to American’s route system, offering numerous flight connections.

The route had been quickly followed in the summer with the inauguration of Allegheny DC-9-30 service to Providence and Washington, while Altair had launched Beech B99 and Nord N.262 turboprop flights to Bridgeport and Philadelphia two years later.

American, Allegheny (which had intermittently merged with Mohawk in 1972), and Altair provided the established Long Island air connection during the 1970s.

In order to reflect its regional location, the facility had, for the fourth time, been renamed, adopting the title of Long Island MacArthur Airport in 1978.

During most of the 1970s, it handled an average of 225,000 annual passengers. Allegheny, the premier operator, had offered nine daily pure-jet BAC-111 and DC-9-30 departures during 1978.

By March of 1982, USAir, the rebranded Allegheny Airlines, had been its only remaining pure-jet carrier with daily DC-9-30 service to Albany and BAC-111-200 service to Washington-National–perhaps emphasizing its ability to profitably operate from small-community airfields with its properly-sized twin-jet equipment.

The early 1980s were characterized by commuter-regional carrier dominance, with operations provided by Pilgrim, New Haven Airlines, Altair, Air North, Mall Airways, and Ransome. The latter, first flying as part of the Allegheny Commuter consortium, later operated independently under its own name in affiliation with Delta Air Lines, offering some 17 daily M-298 and DHC-7 departures to seven regional cities.

Aside from Ransome, it had often appeared as if the airport’s regional airline floodgates had been gappingly opened: Suburban/Allegheny Commuter, Southern Jersey/Allegheny Commuter, Empire, and Henson-The Piedmont Regional Airline had all descended on its runways. Precision, which had inaugurated multiple-daily Dornier Do-228-200 services to both Boston and Philadelphia, operated independently, as Precision-Eastern Express, and as Precision-Northwest Airlink, and had been the only airline to simultaneously offer scheduled service from neighboring Republic Airport in Farmingdale, primarily a general aviation field.

4. Northeastern International Airlines

Market studies had long indicated the need for nonstop Long Island-Florida service because of its concentration of tourist attractions and to facilitate visits between Long Island children and Florida-relocated retiree parents. Deregulation, the very force behind multiple-airline creation, divergent service and fare concepts, and the relative ease of new market entry, had spawned Northeastern International, which was founded to provide high-density, low-fare, limited-amenity service, and fulfilled the idealized nonstop, Long Island-Florida connection when it had inaugurated operations on February 11, 1982 with a former Evergreen International DC-8-50, initially offering four weekly round-trips to Fort Lauderdale and one to Orlando. After a second aircraft had been acquired, it had been able to record a 150,000-passenger total during its first year of service, with 32,075 having been boarded in December alone.

Although its corporate headquarters had been located in Fort Lauderdale, its operational base had been established at Long Island MacArthur and it ultimately served Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Miami, Orlando, and St. Petersburgh with the two DC-8s and two former Pan Am 727-100s with seven daily departures. Incorporating both the charter carrier strategy of operating high-density, single-class, low-fare service, and the major airline strategy of flying large-capacity aircraft, it actually served a very competitive route-that of New York-to-Florida-without incurring any competition at all by operating directly from Islip.

By 1984, with Northeastern having served as a catalyst to carrier and route inaugurations, eleven airlines had served the airport, inclusive of Allegheny Commuter, American, Eastern, Empire, Henson, NewAir, Northeastern, Pilgrim, Ransome, United, and USAir, relieving JFK and La Guardia of air traffic, directly serving the Long Island market, and fulfilling the airport’s originally envisioned role of becoming New York’s secondary commercial facility. Simultaneously providing nonstop service to Chicago-O’Hare from Islip, American and United both competed for the same passenger base.

By 1986, Long Island MacArthur had, for the first time in its 36-year scheduled history, handled one million passengers in a single year, a level since equaled or exceeded.

To cater to the explosive demand and ease its now-overstrained passenger facilities, the Town of Islip embarked on a progressive terminal facility improvement program which had initially encompassed the addition of two commuter aircraft gates, the enclosure of the former curbside front awning, and two glass-enclosed wings-the west for the now-covered baggage carousel and the east for the three relocated rental-car counters and the Austin Travel agency. The internal roadway had been realigned and additional parking spaces had been created.

A more ambitious terminal expansion program, occurring in 1990 and costing $3.2 million, resulted in two jetbridge-lined concourses which extended from the rear portion of the oval terminal, adding 22,700 square feet of space. Runway 6-24’s 1,000-foot extension, to 7,000 feet, had ultimately been completed three years later after a decade of primarily local resident resistance due to believed noise increases.

By the end of 1990, the transformation of Long Island MacArthur Airport from a small, hometown airfield served by a couple of operators to a major facility served by most of the major carriers had been complete.

Several conclusions could already be drawn from the airport’s hitherto 30-year scheduled history.

1. Allegheny-USAir, along with its regional subsidiaries Allegheny Commuter and USAir Express, had provided the initial spark which had led to the present growth explosion and had been the only consistent, anchor carrier during its three-decade, scheduled service history, between 1960 and 1990. During this time it had absorbed other Islip operators, inclusive of the original Mohawk and Piedmont, the latter of which had intermittently absorbed Empire and Henson, and had shed still others, such as Ransome Airlines, which, as an independent carrier, had almost established a regional, turboprop hub at MacArthur.

2. Three carriers had been tantamount to its three-decade evolution: (1). Allegheny-USAir, which had reserved the distinction of being Long Island MacArthur’s first, largest, and, for a period, only pure-jet operator; American, which had changed its image by associating it with large, trunk-carrier prestige; and Northeastern, whose bold, innovative service inauguration and low fares had been directly responsible for the latest, unceasing growth cycle.

3. Many airlines, unaware of the facility’s traffic potential, never permanently abandoned the air field, including American and Eastern, which had both suspended operations, but subsequently returned; Northeastern, which had returned after two bankruptcies; United, which had discontinued its own service, yet maintained a presence through two separate regional airline affiliations-Presidential-United Express and Atlantic Coast-United Express-thus continuing to link its Washington-Dulles hub; Continental, which had returned through its own commuter agreement; and Pilgrim, which, despite service discontinuation, had maintained an autonomous check-in counter where it had handled other carriers until it itself had reinstated service.

4. Of the approximately 30 airlines which had served Long Island MacArthur, many had indirectly retained a presence either through name-change, other-carrier absorption, or regional-airline two-letter code-share agreements.

5. The Northeastern-forged air link between Long Island and Florida had, despite its own final bankruptcy, never been lost, with other carriers always filling the void, including Eastern, Carnival, Braniff, Delta Express, and Spirit Airlines.

Because of its market fragility, however, the Long Island regional airport was far more vulnerable to economic cycles than the primary New York airports had been, recessed conditions often resulting in the exodus of carriers in search of more profitable routes. In 1994, for example, three airlines discontinued service and one ceased operating altogether.

A $13.2 million expansion program of the 32-year old, multiply-renovated oval terminal, funded by passenger facility charge (PFC)-generated revenue, had been initiated in the spring of 1998 and completed in August of the following year, resulting in a 62,000-square-foot area increase. The enlarged, reconfigured structure included the addition of two wings–the west with four baggage carousels, three rental car counters, and several airline baggage service offices, and the east with 48 (as opposed to the previous 20) passenger check-in positions. The original, oval-shaped structure now housed an enlarged newsstand and gift shop and the relocated central security checkpoint, but retained the departures level snack bar, the upper level Skyway Café and cocktail lounge, and the twin, jetbridge-provisioned concourses added during the 1990 expansion phase, while the aircraft parking ramp had been progressively increased until the last blade of grass had been transformed into concrete. A realigned entrance road, an extension of the existing short-term parking lot, 1,000 additional parking spaces, and a quasi-parking lot system subdivided into employee, resident, hourly, daily, and economy (long-term) sections had completed the renovation. Shuttle bus service between the parking lot and the terminal was provided for the first time.

5. Southwest Airlines

An effort to attract Southwest Airlines had begun in late-1996 when the rapidly-expanding, highly profitable, low-fare carrier had contemplated service to a third northeast city after Manchester and Providence, inclusive of Newburgh’s Stewart International and White Plains’ Westchester County in New York; Hartford and New Haven in Connecticut; and Teterboro and Trenton’s Mercer County in New Jersey. All had been smaller, secondary airports characteristic of its route system. It had even briefly explored service to Farmingdale’s Republic Airport on Long Island and Teterboro in New Jersey, both of which had been noncommercial, general aviation fields with business jet concentrations. Three had offered terminal improvements in exchange for the service. But Long Island MacArthur was ultimately selected because of the 1.6 million residents living within a 20-mile radius of the airport, local business health, and, according to Southwest Chief Executive Officer, Herb Kelleher, “underserved, overpriced air service” which was “ripe for competition.”

Following initial Southwest interest in 1997, then-Town of Islip Supervisor Peter McGowan and other officials flew to Dallas, where Herb Kelleher stated the need for the previously described terminal and parking facility expansions before operations could begin. The meeting had ended with nothing more than a symbolic handshake.

The nearly two-year effort to entice the airline had culminated in the December 1998 announcement of Southwest’s intended March 14, 1999 service launch with 12 daily 737 departures, including eight to Baltimore, two to Chicago-Midway, one to Nashville, and one to Tampa, all of which would provide through- or connecting-service to 29 other Southwest-served cities. Although the low-fare flights had been expected to attract some passengers who may otherwise have flown from JFK or La Guardia Airports, they had been primarily targeted at the Long Island market and, as a byproduct, had been expected to attract an increased airport traffic base, additional carriers, and generate an estimated $500,000 per year for the Town of Islip. Two Southwest-dedicated gates could accommodate up to 20 daily departures-or eight more than the inaugural flight schedule included-before additional facilities would have to be obtained. The Islip station, staffed by 44, represented its 53rd destination in 27 states.

Southwest had provided the fourth spark in Long Island MacArthur Airport’s airline- and passenger-attraction cycle, traced as follows:

1. The original air taxi Gateway Airlines service of 1959 and the initial scheduled Allegheny Airlines service of 1960.

2. The first trunk-carrier, pure-jet American Airlines flights of 1971.

3. The first low-fare, nonstop Northeastern International Florida service of 1982.

4. The first low-fare, high frequency, major-carrier Southwest service of 1999.

American, the last of the original, major carriers to vacate the airport, left it with three predominant types of airlines as the millennium had approached:

1. The turboprop commuter airline serving the nonhub destinations, such as Albany, Boston, Buffalo, Hartford, and Newburgh.

2. The regional jet operator feeding its major-carrier affiliate at one of its hubs, such as ASA feeding Delta in Atlanta, Comair connecting with Delta in Cincinnati, and Continental Express integrating its flight schedule with Continental in Cleveland.

3. The low-fare, high-density, no-frills carrier operating the leisure-oriented sectors to Florida. As of December 1, 1999, three airlines, inclusive of Delta Express, Southwest, and Spirit, had operated 15 daily departures to five Florida destinations.

Long Island MacArthur’s expansion and passenger facility improvements, Southwest’s service inauguration, and the attraction of other carriers had collectively resulted in a 113% increase in passenger boardings in 1999 compared to the year-earlier period. The figure, which had been only shy of the two million mark, had been the highest in the Long Island airport’s four-decade commercial history. Southwest had carried 34% of this total.

Eleven airlines had provided service during this time: ASA Atlantic Southeast, American, Business Express, Comair, CommutAir/US Airways Express, Continental Express, Delta Express, Piedmont/US Airways Express, Shuttle America, Spirit, and Southwest itself.

Less than two weeks after Southwest had secured a third gate and increased its daily departures to 22, it announced, in a unprecedented move, its intention to self-finance 90-percent of a $42 million expansion of the East Concourse in order to construct four additional, dedicated gates and overnight parking positions by the end of 2001, thus increasing the airport’s current 19-gate total to 23.

The concourse extension, intended to provide it with both increased employee and passenger room, would free up its existing three gates for other-carrier utilization while its new four-gate facility would permit a service increase to some 30 daily flights based upon future passenger demand, aircraft availability, and Town of Islip-approved departure increases.

The expansion would mark the seventh such development of the original terminal, as follows:

1. The original oval terminal construction.

2. The partially enclosed arrivals baggage belt installation.

3. The construction of two commuter gates.

4. The enclosure of the front awning, which entailed the relocation of the rental car companies and the Austin Travel agency, and the installation of an enlarged, fully enclosed baggage belt.

5. The construction of the jetbridge-equipped east and west concourses.

6. The construction of the West Arrivals Wing and the East Departures Wing, the gift shop expansion, and the central security checkpoint relocation.

7. The Southwest-financed, quad-gate addition, increasing the number of departure gates from 19 to 23.

Victim, like all airports, to post-September 11 traffic declines, Long Island MacArthur Airport lost eight daily departures operated by American Eagle, Delta Express, and US Airways Express, although the airport’s October 2001 passenger figures had only been six percent below those of the year-earlier period. No nonstop destinations had, however, been severed. With Delta Express’s daily 737-200 Florida flight frequency having been progressively reduced from an all-time high of seven to just one–to Fort Lauderdale–its operations could be divided into three categories:

1. Turboprop regional

2. Pure-jet regional

3. Southwest

Nevertheless, in the four years since Southwest had inaugurated service, the airport had handled 8,220,790 passengers, or an annual average of two million. Without Southwest, it would, at best, have handled only half that amount.

On April 30, 2003, for the second time in a five-year period, Long Island MacArthur Airport broke ground on new terminal facilities. Designed by the Baldassano Architectural Group, the Long Island architectural firm which had completed the $13.2 million airport expansion and modernization program in 1999, the new, 154,000-square-foot, four-gate addition was constructed on the north side of the existing east concourse which had housed Southwest’s operations. Citing increased space and potential growth as reasons for the new facility, Southwest claimed that the existing three gates, which had fielded a combined 24 daily departures, had reached their saturation point and that additional “breathing room” for both passengers and employees had been needed, particularly during flight delays. The net gain of an additional gate, which would be coupled with larger lounges, would eventually facilitate eight additional flights to new or existing US destinations, based upon market demand.

The project, initially pegged at $42 million, but later increased to $62 million, was financed by Southwest, which sought government reimbursement with the Town of Islip for up to $18 million for the non-airline specific construction aspects, such as airfield drainage, which was considered a common-use utility.

The 114,254-square-foot, Southwest-funded and -named Peter J. McGowan Concourse officially opened at the end of November 2004. Accessed by a new awning-protected entrance from the airport’s terminal-fronted curbside, the new wing, connected to the existing passenger check-in area, curved to the left past the flight arrival and departure television monitors to the new, large security checkpoint from where passengers ascended, via two escalators, to the upper level departures area.

Concurrent with the opening had been the announcement that Southwest would now proceed with Phase II of its expansion by building a second, $20 million addition which would connect the new concourse with the old, altogether replacing the east concourse which had served it since it had inaugurated service in 1999. The project incorporated four more gates, for a total of eight, enabling up to 80 daily departures to be offered.

6. New Leadership, Service Reductions, and Infrastructure Improvements

The end of the 2000-decade, characterized by new leadership, airline service reductions, and infrastructure investments, once again signaled a reversal in Long Island MacArthur Airport’s growth cycle.

Al Werner, Airport Commission for 53 years, retired on November 16, 2007, passing the torch to Teresa Rizzuto. Accepted after a three-month, nationwide search conducted by Islip Supervisor Phil Nolan, she brought considerable airline industry experience with her and was appointed to the position on February 5, 2008 after an Islip Town Board vote, now entrusted with heralding the regional facility into the next decade whose multi-faceted agenda necessarily included the following goals:

1. Devise a marketing plan to increase airport recognition, thereby attracting a larger passenger base.

2. Establish new, nonstop routes of existing carriers and attract new airlines able to compete with existing, lost-cost Southwest, to provide the required core service for this enlarged passenger base, yet avoid alienating local residents because of excessive noise.

3. Invest in infrastructure modernization and development, particularly on the airport’s general aviation west side.

4. Increase revenues for the Town of Islip, the airport’s owner and operator.

Long Island MacArthur’s very existence relied upon its ability to serve its customers’ needs, and both destination and airline reductions during the latter part of the decade, coupled with flickering, but quickly extinguished glimmers of new-carrier hope, only obviated its purpose.

Exploratory talks in 2007, with Southwest-modeled, Ireland based-Ryanair, for instance, would have resulted in both the airport’s first international and first transatlantic service, hitherto precluded by the absence of customs and immigration facilities, few connecting possibilities, and inadequate runway length on which heavy, fuel-laden widebody aircraft could take off for intercontinental sectors. But higher thrust engines facilitating shorter-field performance had remedied the latter problem, and pre-departure US clearance would have been performed in Ireland. Because Southwest and Ryanair maintained the same business models of operating single-type, 737 fleets from underserved, overpriced, secondary airports whose lower operating costs could be channeled into lower fares, domestic-international traffic feed between the two had been feasible. Despite existing Islip service provided by Delta and US Airways Express, Southwest still carried 92 percent of its passengers. However, the proposed strategy had yet to produce any concrete results.

Indeed, by the end of the year, the number of potential Southwest connecting flights only declined when decreased demand had necessitated the cancellation of six daily departures, including two to Baltimore, three to Chicago, and one to Las Vegas.

Potential service loss counterbalancing occurred on May 1 of the following year, however, when Spirit Airlines, after an eight-year interval, reinaugurated twice daily, round-trip, A-319 service to Ft. Lauderdale, with $7.00 introductory fares, facilitating 23 Caribbean and Latin American connections through its south Florida hub.

The A-319, the airport’s first, regularly scheduled airbus operation, touched down at 0954 on Runway 6 on its inaugural flight, taxiing through a dual fire truck-created water arch, before redeparting at 1030 as Flight 833 with a high load factor. The second flight departed in the evening.

The departures were two of Spirit’s more than 200 systemwide flights to 43 destinations, but the weak flicker of light they had provided had been almost as quickly doused when, three months later, on July 31, rising fuel prices and declining economic conditions had necessitated their discontinuation, leaving only a promise of return when improved conditions merited their reinstatement.

Further tipping the scales to the service loss side had been Delta Air Line’s decision to discontinue its only remaining, single daily regional jet service operated by its Comair counterpart to Atlanta, severing feed to the world’s largest airport in terms of enplanements and to Delta’s largest connecting hub, and ending the Long Island presence established as far back as 1984. Delta had cited the reason for the discontinuation, along with that in other markets, as an attempt to “optimize…financial performance.”

The second carrier loss, leaving only Southwest and US Airways Express, had resulted in a 10.2-percent passenger decline in 2008 compared to the year-earlier period.

Another attempted, but mostly unsuccessful airline service had occurred in June of 2009 with the appearance of PublicCharters.com, which had intended to link Islip with Groton, Connecticut, and Nantucket, Massachusetts, during the summer.

In order to remedy Long Island MacArthur Airport’s identity recognition deficiency, a study completed by a Phil Nolan-assembled task force strongly concluded that the search for and attraction of new airline service “should be a major focus of management,” a function up until now mostly ignored. The airport’s lack of recognition, coupled with JFK’s and La Guardia’s close proximity to Manhattan and their dizzying array of nonstop services, further urged the need for the study.

A $150,000 federal grant, aimed at answering the elusive question of why Long Islanders still chose to use New York airports when Islip itself offered a nonstop flight, attempted to determine local resident travel patterns and then attract carrier-providing service.

A partial remedy had been the implementation of a $300,000 market campaign, in conjunction with the Long Island Railroad and Southwest Airlines, to increase airport awareness by the eastern Nassau and Suffolk County population, featuring the slogan, “We make flying a breeze.”

Significant attention to airport infrastructure improvement and a related masterplan had also been given.

Long-awaited ramp repairs, for instance, had been made. One year after the $12.4 million apron covering gates five through eight had been laid in 2004, cracks, in which engine-digestible debris could potentially collect, appeared, and were traceable to an inadequate, six-inch-thick subbase which failed to rise above the ground level, and was therefore susceptible to frost. Water, seeping into the subbase, was subjected to freezing-thawing cycles which expanded the concrete, loosened its gravel, and propagated the cracks.

In order to replace the decaying, 105-foot control tower constructed in 1962, the FAA awarded J. Kokolakis Constructing, Inc., of Rocky Point, a $16.4 million contract to build a new, 157-foot, cylindrical tower next to it in January of 2008, a project completed in November of the following year, at which time internal equipment, costing another $8.8 million, was installed.

Instrumental in the airport’s modernization had been the redevelopment of its 45-acre west side, which currently houses charter companies, flying schools, and airport maintenance in mostly dilapidated hangars and buildings, but could potentially be replaced with new energy efficient and conservation compliant structures optimally used by educational institutions offering air traffic control curriculums.

During the latter portion of the decade, Long Island MacArthur Airport once again rode the descending side of the revenue curve, but remains a vital air link and economic engine to eastern Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Between 1996 and 2003, it had experienced an average annual economic impact growth rate of 6.85 percent and between 2001 and 2007 more than 900,000 square feet of commercial space was developed along Veterans Highway, its access roadway, as a result of it. According to Hofstra University’s Center for Suburban Studies, its 2003 economic impact was pegged at $202 million and was projected to increase by 68 percent, or to $340 million, by the end of the decade without any further expansion, indicating that, as a revenue generator, that its potential had hardly begun to be tapped. The service reductions, increases in Homeland Security costs, and eroding economy had all reversed that potential, but its infrastructure improvements, more than 500,000-square-foot passenger terminal, four runways, easy access, uncongested environment, two-mile proximity to the Long Island Railroad’s Ronkonkoma station, and four-mile proximity to the Long Island Expressway places it squarely on the threshold of growth in the next decade, when conditions improve. According to newly appointed Airport Commissioner Teresa Rizzuto, “We’re ready” for new carriers at that time.

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Source by Robert Waldvogel
http://www.alanya07.com

Condition of English in Bangladesh: Second Language or Foreign Language

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Mother tongue or first language is perhaps the most favorite thing for any person. The question of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The prime example of such discontentment is the Language Movement of 1952 in Bangladesh. On the other hand we can not live in isolation. We have to be in contact with the speakers of other languages. Bangladesh is considered to be a monolingual country in which more than 98% of the population is speakers of Bangla language. However, there are more than ten languages in such a small country like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are just some of the other languages present in Bangladesh.

The interesting thing is that Urdu is a Indo-European language but written in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language family while Chakma belongs to the Chinese-Barmese language group. So, although Bangladesh is often portrayed as a country of linguistic unity based on Bangla language in reality it has notable linguistic diversity. To communicate with the speakers of other languages we either need to know their language or communicate in a Lingua-Franca that is comprehensible to both of us.

Today, the world has become a global village. Thanks to the advancement of communication system and technology. Every country is dependent on others for trade and commerce, education, politics etc. As a result, we have to constantly communicate with other countries and speakers of other languages. Third world countries like Bangladesh have to depend on foreign aid because they are not self-sufficient. As a result, many foreigners come to Bangladesh. A third factor is the factor of religion. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.

All these factors remind us the necessity for learning other language(s) in addition to our mother tongue. According to this reality many countries of the world have adopted a European language as second language which is often used in education, law court, economic activities and government works. These languages have most of the time official status in the constitution of those countries. Many of the cases the countries have adopted the language of their past colonial rulers as the second language. Sometimes these languages are also called official language. In many African countries we can see this picture. On the other hand, some European languages have become very important in the world for literary and economic purposes. For example, German and French are considered to be important languages of the world because both of them have influential literature and economic aspects associated with them.

For example, many people in our country are interested to learn French because it may help them to get UN jobs and jobs in Multinational companies. Another attractive motivation for learning French in Bangladesh is that it may help us to immigrate to Canada as skill in French language gives a person some extra points in the point system of Canadian immigration.

The title of my research is “Status of English in Bangladesh: Second language or foreign language?” I have selected this topic because from sociolinguistic point of view the status of English is a very interesting one. On the one hand English language is dominantly present in every side of our national life while on the other hand in our constitution it is clearly declared that the language of the country is Bangla. In fact, nothing is said about the status of English language in our constitution. On one hand, economic activities in the private companies are carried out in English while there is a government law (Bangla procholon ain1987) that government offices must use Bangla in their official works. So from the government point of view Bangla is the national- official language of Bangladesh and English is the most important foreign language. But in reality English is the second language of the country and in many places English is more important than Bangla in Bangladesh.

Second language:

A second language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned; it is typically used because of geographical or social reasons. The term is to be distinguished from foreign language; linguist Eric Lenneberg uses second language in his critical period hypothesis to mean a language consciously learned or used by its speaker after puberty. In most cases, people never achieve the same level of fluency and comprehension in their second languages as in their first language.

Historically in Europe, the most widely used second language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was used by the Church; by the Law (as it still is today); in Medicine (starting much later); Horticulture and biological classification of plants, animals, fruits, nuts, etc.

Latin was used so much across Europe that it was called the vulgar (or common tongue); this is why the Latin version of the Bible is called the Vulgate.

Nowadays, English is considered the world’s most widespread second language; it is used in areas as diverse as the internet, television and radio, and international aviation.

The success of English throughout the world stems from two major causes: the far reaching influence of the British Empire, and the 20th century (and continuing) dominance of the United States in the fields of business and entertainment.

French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of term) in Europe. In history, both England and France were ruled by a single crown – the language used by the royal court was French (English was considered “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the case with English, the French empire spread its language through colonization. French continues to be one of the world’s most widely spoken languages. (Source: Wikipedia)

If we look at the definition of second language then we can easily say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It is widely used in many parts of our national life. Many people watch English television channels and also use Internet. The students have to study it for twelve years and those who want to join civil service by attending BCS exam also have to sit for English examination. The only thing that is missing from the above definition is the fact that except for formal occasions no one speaks in English in Bangladesh. It is not the language used in home among family members and among friends in informal conversation.

Foreign language:

A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. It is also a language not spoken in the native country of the person referred to, i.e. an English speaker living in Japan can say that Japanese is a foreign language to him or her.

Some children learn more than one language from birth or from a very young age: they are bilingual. These children can be said to have two mother tongues: neither language is foreign to that child, even if one language is a foreign language for the vast majority of people in the child’s birth country. For example, a child learning English from her English mother in Japan can speak both English and Japanese, but neither is a foreign language to her. (Source- Wikipedia)

From the above definition, it is seen that foreign language refers to a language that is not native to a person. From this point of view English can be considered as a foreign language in Bangladesh since it is not native in our country. Hardly any Bangladeshi person speaks in English although many of them use it in education and business.

Official language:

An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nation’s legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other languages as well.

Officially recognized minority languages are often mistaken for official languages. However, a language officially recognized by a state, taught in schools, and used in official communication is not necessarily an official language. For example, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are only officially recognized minority languages, not official languages in the strict sense.

Half of the countries in the world have official languages. Some have only one official language, such as Albania, France, or Lithuania, despite the fact that in all these countries there are other native languages spoken as well. Some have more than one official language, such as Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.

In some countries, such as Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there is an official language for the country, but other languages are co-official in some important regions. Some countries, such as Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and the United States have no official languages.

The official languages of some former colonies, typically French or English, are not the national languages or the most widely spoken language.

In contrast, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “national language” of the Republic of Ireland and its first official language, although it is spoken by only a small fraction of its people. English, which is spoken by the majority, is described only as the second official language (Constitution of Ireland, Article 8).

In some countries, the issue of which language is to be used in what context is a major political issue.(Source-Wikipedia)

From the above definition, it is seen that the notion of official language is complicated. According to our constitution English can not be termed as the official language of Bangladesh since it has no status in our constitution. The only language that is mentioned in our constitution is Bangla. But English is allowed in our parliament and many government events. For example, when there is a government event in which some foreigners attend then in many cases the speakers use English language. Many important government documents are written both in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are kept into these two languages. When a government body organizes a fair then often the souvenir is published in English.

Constitution:

About the language of the country the Bangladeshi constitution clearly states:

“The state language.

The state language of the Republic is [Bangla].”

(Source: [http://www.pmo.gov.bd/constitution/consti2.htm#3].)

In the constitution nothing is mentioned about the status of English. English is not mentioned as a second language or official language. So if we take the status of English in our constitution then we cannot claim that English is a Second language or Official Language in Bangladesh.

English in Law court in Bangladesh:

After Independence the government took the initiative to implement Bangla language in law court. As a result, now the lower courts carry out their activities in Bangla but English is yet very influential in High Court and Supreme Court. If a lawyer wants to practice in Supreme court then he must have a good command over English language. Many of the judges still give their verdicts in English language. It seems that this trend of using English will remain for the forcible future.

English in Education sector in Bangladesh:

Formal and institutionalized education system started in Bangladesh during the British rule. At that time Bangladesh was part of British India. There was a debate about the medium of education. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium should be English rather than Sanskrit or Persian. During the British period the medium of education was largely in English. Calcutta University took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of education along with English. In Bangladesh the use of Bangla in college level started in the 1960s. Now students can answer in the examinations in Bangla or English. In the college level and university level after 1971 the government tried to patronize Bangla and implement it by replacing English in the education sector but this did not came into reality because of some basic problems. The first problem is that there were not enough books of any field in Bangla language. This problem is more acute in science and technology. For example, there are almost no books in Bangla about computer technology that can be used as a reference book in the University level.

Actually there are three kinds of education systems in our country- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa system. Bangla medium schools can be divided into two sections- government schools, and kindergarten schools. In the kindergarten schools more emphasis is given on English language than government schools. Some of the famous kindergarten schools of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Little Flower, and so on. Although these schools belong to Bangla medium the students have to study 3-4 English books like: Radiant Way, Active English, Desk Work, Fundamental English, Brighter Grammar, and so on. On the other hand in the government schools there is mainly one English book (English for Today) which is published by Bangladesh Text Book Board. The English medium schools do not follow Bangladeshi education system and are under the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these schools is English and many of the students of English medium are even very weak in Bangla language. There are two kinds of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas are not recognized by the government and do not receive any assistance from the government. In this Madrassas emphasis is given on learning Arabic, Persian, and Urdu while Bangla and English are neglected. On the other hand in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is mainly given on Arabic and Bangla and English are not so much neglected.

So we can clearly see that the difference in education system in Bangladesh is solely based on the difference in the medium of education. Although Bangla is the National-Official language of Bangladesh it is the English medium education institutes who get more money. The rise of private universities has only increased the status and importance of English language in Bangladesh. There are now more than 50 private Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of education in all of them is English. These universities charge 2 lakh to 5 lakh taka for Bachelor course. If the medium of education was in Bangla then hardly any student or parents would get interested to pay such huge money for the education in private universities.

From the above discussion it is clear that in our general education system English has equal if not more importance than Bangla. In our education system English is really the Second language as all the students have to study it as a compulsory subject for twelve years.

English and Administration:

During the language movement the people of Bangladesh were afraid that if Urdu was established as the State Language of Pakistan then all the government activities will be carried out in Urdu and our people will suffer. As a result of the language movement, the Pakistani Regime kept on carrying out government activities in English language. After Bangladesh became independent the government of Awami League decided to replace English with Bangla in administrative works but after the death of Sheikh Mujib this process came to a halt and English continued to remain as the dominant language. It was during the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and implemented. From that time English started to lose its significance in administration. However, it has to be mentioned that all the international communication of Bangladesh government is carried out through English.

English in Economic activities:

The economy of Bangladesh is dependent on foreign aids and export of some common items like ready made garments, jute, tea, fish etc and also we import a lot of things. Bangladesh is not self sufficient economically. Trading is more popular than production. Trading requires constant communication with foreign companies. Many of the companies who are involved in trading have to use English in dealing with foreigners. Suppose, a company is doing trading with China which is not an English speaking country. Then the company has to contact the Chinese company in English. If we look at the advertisements of the private sector jobs then we can easily notice that most of the job advertisements are posted in English. Even most of the private sector job advertisements that are posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Almost all the private jobs state that the applicants must have good proficiency in English language. Almost all the public limited companies publish their annual reports in English. Some of these companies produce a Bangla version of their annual report but the emphasis is always on English. So it is clear that English is the dominant language in our economic activities.

Comparison of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:

Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the religious languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated people try to learn these languages as they are considered to be holy. If we compare the learning of English with these languages then we can see that English is given more importance. For example, the tuition fee of a English coaching center is much higher than that of an Arabic coaching centre. English private tutors get 4-5 times more money than Arabic private tutors (Huzur). So although Arabic has religious sentiment attached to it English is considered to be more important as it has economic benefit.

Comparison of English foreign languages like French, German, and Farsi:

French and German have become very popular for economic reasons in our country. Learning these languages help us to increase our possibility to get a UN job. Learning French is also helpful for getting immigration to Canada. Also there are good facilities to learn these languages in Dhaka University, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Recently, the English Institute of North South University has introduced French course. On the other hand during the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and law court in Bangladesh. At present, a student can attend Farsi course for one semester by just paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Center but there are not many students who are interested to learn Farsi, French, and German. On the other hand, hundreds of students each year appear for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English language.

From the above picture it is clear that the status of English is much higher than foreign languages like German, French, and Farsi. We can not deny the reality that if a person is good at English then he can earn money in any part of Bangladesh but if a person is good at French, German, or Farsi he has hardly any scope to earn money by using his skills in these languages.

Recommendations:

From the discussion so far there is no doubt that English is the second language of Bangladesh but this reality is not reflected in our constitution. Officially Bangladesh is not known as an ESL country to the outside world. So Bangladesh should be declared as an ESL country by the government without any delay. We learn English not because we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We learn English from out of every day necessity. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL country and English language is given a clear status in the constitution then it will not only reflect the reality but also it will help us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately trying to attract foreign investors. Before any company comes to Bangladesh for exploring the investment opportunities one of the key areas they would look for is the availability of pool of English graduates and they also expect that the normal workers will have basic understanding of English language. If we become an ESL country then these foreign companies while searching about Bangladesh will get assured about the strong presence of English language in this country.

The same picture is there about educational sector. Many Bangladeshi students want to go to developed countries like USA, UK , Canada, and Australia for higher education. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL country then these students will be benefited because then the Universities of those countries will get the idea that English has special significance in Bangladesh.

So I recommend to the government of Bangladesh that English should be declared as the second language of the country by amending the constitution.

Conclusion:

Bangladesh is the only country in the world whose people sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historical language movement of 1952 is acknowledged internationally as the International Mother Language Day. It is true that our people are emotional about their language, Bangla. However, it is equally true that now our people have become desperate about getting skilled in English language. As a result, there are more than fifty private universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Offered BBA and Computer Science courses in Bangla medium then they would not get even 10% of the number of students they have now. It is now good time that we finish the great contradiction about the language issue and declare Bangladesh as an ESL country for our own benefit.

Bibliography

1. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BHASHACINTA PROSONGO O PORIDHI. Dhaka:Bangla

Academy, 2002.

2. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLADESHER RASHTRABHASHA. Dhaka:Bangla

Academy, 2002.

3. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BHASHA PORIKOLPONAR SHOMAJ

BHASHATATTA. Dhaka:Bangla Academy, 1996.

4. Dr. Musa, Monsur. BANGLA PARIBHASHA: ITIHAS O SAMASYA. Dhaka:Bangla

Academy, 2002.

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Source by S M Mehdi Hasan

The Advantages of Bayesian Spam Filters

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Bayesian spam filtering technique is a great way of filtering out the spam from reaching your inbox. M. Sahami, S. Dumais, D. Heckerman, and E. Horvitz proposed this technique in “A Bayesian approach to filtering junk e-mail” in 1998, but until it was described in a paper by Paul Graham, in 2002, it gained no attention. Thereafter, it has become a great technique for distinguishing legitimate email from the illegitimate spam mail. Modern email programs use the Bayesian spam filtering techniques, and so do the server-side email filters, which at times, embed the function of the Bayesian spam filters within the mail server software itself.

The Bayesian spam filters works by analyzing and then calculating the probability of the contents in the email being spam. It self-builds a list of characteristics of spam as well as good elements in the message. Based on the analysis, the message is classified as spam or legitimate. After the message has been classified, the spam filter is further trained on a per-user basis. This is the advantage of Bayesian anti spam filters.

Most spam one receives is more often than not related to one’s activities online. You may have subscribed to an online newsletter, which could be considered as spam. This newsletter, like other newsletters from the same source, is likely to contain common words, such as its name and its email address, from where it originated. Your Bayesian filter will analyze the contents, identify the characteristics, and assign a higher rate of probability to its being spam. All this is based on your specific user activity.

Legitimate emails you receive are different from the spam, and the Bayesian anti spam filter will assign a lower rate of probability of its being spam. In an environment where you receive corporate emails from the same source, the mails will have the same company name, and the names of the clients or customers. These will be analyzed as legitimate by your Bayesian filter.

The Bayesian spam filter’s accuracy improves over time. It analyzes the characteristics that allow it to assess the probability, and whenever the filter incorrectly classifies a message, its corrective training takes over. The probability of each word is unique to each individual user.

The Bayesian filter is exceptional in avoiding false positives. If the email you receive contains the words ‘Nigeria’ or ‘lottery’, which have frequently been seen in spam messages, your Bayesian anti spam filter would probably put it down as a probable, and not reject it outright, as a normal spam filter might. It would look for other characteristics to classify the message. If the mail happens to be from your spouse, it would indicate its legitimacy, and your Bayesian spam filter would overcome the probable spam words.

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Source by Arvind Singh

E-Ticaret Platformu Nasıl Kurulur?

Alışveriş eğilimi, fiziksel pazarlardan e-ticaret mağazalarına kaymıştır. Akhisar, programlarını bozmadan istediği zaman, istediğin zaman istediğin yerden alışveriş yapmanın kolay yolunu sunuyor. E-ticaret alanı, başlangıçta kullanılmadığı zamana kadar çok büyük bir kazanç elde etti. Endüstride e-ticaret alanı da artmaktadır ve girişimcilerin ve işletmelerin çevrimiçi olmalarını kolaylaştıran birkaç e-ticaret platformu bulunmaktadır. Bilet ve harç perakendecileri, bu büyük büyümeden ipucunu almalı ve çevrimiçi olarak planlama yapmaya başlamalıdır. saklar. Çevrimiçi bir varlık oluşturmak isteyen mağaza sahipleri için yararlı olabilecek birkaç nokta listesi. Size en uygun platformu seçin. Pazar, şaşırtıcı özelliklere sahip birkaç platformla doludur. Herhangi bir çevrimiçi mağazanın yardımıyla çevrimiçi mağazanıza başlamak için her zaman iki seçeneğiniz olabilir.

Ürünlerinizi listelemek için bir pazar seçin2. Kendi e-ticaret mağazanızı oluşturun. Bu seçeneklerin hepsinin kendi önemi vardır. Bir pazar seçmek, size binlerce müşteriden oluşan bir platform sunar ve pazarlamaya yatırım yapmanız gerekmez. Öte yandan, kendi e-ticaret mağazanızı kurmayı seçerseniz, bir teknik ekibin yardımı ile sıfırdan başlayabilirsiniz.

Alternatif olarak, piyasada hızlı bir geri dönüş süresine sahip birkaç e-ticaret platformu sağlayıcısını da deneyebilirsiniz. Belirli bir süre içinde etkin sonuçlara odaklanan bir akhisar bayan yaklaşımına sahip olmak daha iyi bir seçenektir. Kaynaklardan oluşan bir ekibi bir araya getirmek ve bir çevrimiçi mağaza oluşturmak gerçekten çok zaman alabilir. Çevrimiçi bir mağaza oluşturmanın daha akıllıca bir yolu, bir e-ticaret platformu seçmeyi ve işinizi derhal başlatmayı tercih eder. İşim için uygun bir platform sağlayıcısı nasıl seçilir? Her işletme sahibinin aklını etkileyen ilk soru budur. Sizin için en uygun seçimi seçmek tamamen sizin gereksinimlerinize bağlıdır. İşte biraz zaman alabilen, ancak kesinlikle size net ve net bir görüntü verecek basit bir yol. Listelenen kilit noktalara bağlı olarak platformu analiz edin. Müşterileri mümkün olan her şekilde çekebilmek için bir e-ticaret platformunun tam anlamıyla desteklenmesi gerekiyor. alışveriş için.

Platform kullanımı kolay mı? Kullanıcı dostu bir platform, işi karlı kılmak için yerine getirilmesi gereken temel bir gerekliliktir. Platform, müşterilerin ürünlerini kolayca aramalarını sağlarsa, daha hızlı ödeme yapın ve satın alımlarını tamamlarken bunları birden fazla sayfaya yönlendirmez, o zaman her zaman iyi bir seçim olabilir. Öte yandan, e-ticaret platformları DIY (kendin yap) işlevselliği sunar. Mağazanızın hayal gücünüze uygun olarak yaratılması eğlenceli bir işlemdir ve eğer platform bunu kolayca yapabilmenizi sağlarsa heyecan verici hale gelir. Dolayısıyla, platform oluşturucuların yanı sıra müşterilerin de kolaylığı göz önüne alındığında odaklanılacak ilk nokta budur. Uçtan uca e-ticaret çözümleri sağlıyor mu? Uçtan uca bir çözüm ne anlama geliyor? Bir e-ticaret platformunun, ürünlerin herhangi bir zarar vermeden zamanında teslim edilmesini sağlayan birden fazla ödeme ağ geçidi ve lojistik ortağına sahip olması beklenir. Tüm önde gelen lojistik sağlayıcılarla entegrasyona izin veren ve işinizi ülke içinde ve dışındaki yeni pazarlara götürmenize yardımcı olan bir platform sağlayıcısı her zaman pastanın üzerinde bir kiraz olabilir.

Lojistik veya ödeme konularından endişe duymadan kullanıcıların sınır ötesi alışveriş yapmasına izin veren bir platform aramayı deneyin. Dijital pazarlama için ekstra çaba sarf etmeniz gerekiyor mu, müşterileri çekmek için pazarlama özellikleri sağlayan herhangi bir e-ticaret platformu, boyun boğazı nedeniyle bir gerekliliktir Online pazarda rekabet. Seçtiğiniz platform sağlayıcısı SEO ve sosyal medya dostu işlevselliklerle birlikte gelirse, o zaman sizin için çok faydalı olabilir. Müşteriler her zaman taze ürünler ve stiller ararlar, sosyal medya sitelerinde bir bildirim kolayca dikkatlerini çekebilirler. Tüm bu ipuçları, işletmeniz için faydalı olabilecek platformu seçmek için fazlasıyla yeterli.

Royal Carlock Washington DC Hand Colored Photography

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Royal Hubert Carlock (1899-1970) was born in Paris Crossing, Indiana. One of six children he was born to Benjamin and Ellen Carlock. After graduating from Indiana University, Carlock married Ethel Wohrer in 1917. He entered the US Army near the end of World War I where he specialized in aerial photography as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers and after the war had ended, the couple moved to Washington DC in 1918 where their first daughter was born.

After his discharge from the Army, Carlock secured employment with a photography firm named CO Buckingham who at the time was producing hand-painted photographs of the chief tourist attractions in Washington, DC. This explains the obvious similarity in style between Carlock and Buckingham hand-colored pictures.

Ethel Carlock died in 1920 during an influenza epidemic, leaving Carlock a widower with a 15 month-old baby.

Carlock was fascinated by the architecture and national treasures found in our nation's capital. He focused his photographic and hand-painting skills on subjects found in-and-around the Washington DC area. The only photographer in his company, his black & white photographs were hand-painted in oils and sold to the multitude of tourists visiting our nation's capital during the post World War I era.

In 1922 Carlock married his 2nd wife, Emma Clarke. In that same year he also left the employment of the Buckingham Studios and opened his own photography studio at 406 13th Street NW in Washington, DC. Carlock's " Snappy Snap Shop " specialized in quick development of tourist's film along with the sale of his increasingly famous hand-colored photographs of the Washington DC landmarks and monuments, including the White House, Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, and Washington Monuments, the US Capital Building, and of course, Washington's colorful cherry blossoms. Working together as a team, Carlock took the pictures and Emma, ​​along with other colorists, hand-tinted them.

We have seen Carlock pictures identified in three distinct manners:

• Matted pictures signed " Carlock " on the lower right corner benefit the picture, with or without a title lower left.
• Un-matted, close-framed pictures with " Carlock " being embossed on the lower-left corner of the actual picture.
• No marking on the picture or matting, but simply a " Carlock " picture label on the backing.

Jane Crandall has reported that Royal Carlock was her uncle and that both of her parents worked for him at some point. She also reported that her mother, Julia Carlock, was one of Carlock's colorists and would bring pictures home to color in the evening. Jane Crandall also reported that many of the signatures found on Carlock pictures were actually signed by her mother.

Royal Carlock kept his business running into the 1940's. Collector Myke Ellis has reported that the 1943 Polk Washington DC Address Directory listed Royal Carlock as working at 913 Pennsylvania Avenue. Even during the Depression years when so many other photographers saw their businesses either decline or closed their doors, Carlock's business flourished due primarily to the constant high level of tourism, and the large and growing number of people who were gainfully employed by the US Government.

Although his photographs usually sold best at cherry blossom time, for several years Carlock also produced a Christmas Card which contained a hand-colored photo of Washington DC. These are considered quite rare with collectors today.

As with all other early 20th c. hand-colored photographers, the advent of color film led to the decline in Carlock's hand-colored photography business. The primary emphasis of his business turned to photo refinishing until 1957 when he retired from the photography business to devote his life to conservation.

In 1962 his 40-year marriage to Emma dissolved and in 1964 he married Grace Diane Knapp.

Suffering from cardiac problems during the final years of his life, Royal Carlock died from a heart attack in 1970. His ashes were buried on a small isle in a lagoon at the National Isaac Walton League Conservation Park near Gaithersburg, MD.

Carlock pictures are still reliably inexpensive and quite affordable. Their low price, good quality, and interesting subject matter will probably continue to make them collectible. The only limitation is that there are only approximately 10 different Washington DC scenes to collect. The next time you see a Washington DC picture in a shop or show, take a closer look at it. It will probably be a Royal Carlock hand-colored photograph.

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Source by Michael Ivankovich

5 Ways to Gain a Competitive Edge By Choosing the Right App Development Company

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If you want to thrive in the business world, then you have to follow the trends and even anticipate them if possible. Plus, you have to study the competition and improve on what they are doing. It’s always hard to gain that competitive edge on the market, but if you’re creative, dedicated and you work hard to achieve your goals, results can be very impressive. One of the major trends right now is having a mobile application, so it can be a very good idea to work with an app development company. But is it a good idea to create your own mobile app this way?

It helps you get more sales by letting customers shop on the go

If you work with an Android app development company, you get to have a mobile app that brings your services and features in front of more customers. From here to generating more leads it will be one single step. All you have to do is to work with the mobile app development company, create the app, publish and then promote it properly. You can obtain some incredible results this way, as people can shop on the go, which brings in more convenience and value for them.

Better communication

A good mobile app development company will help you create mobile apps that boost the way you communicate with customers. You can add chat features in the app and thus offer your customers a better customer support experience. This type of feature works well and, used adequately; it can enhance the way you connect your customers.

Improving the power of your brand

People tend to remember only the brand names they use often. If you want to have a memorable brand, you need a great logo and brand message, but you should also consider creating a mobile app too. The Android app development company will help you improve your brand power by creating a meaningful and helpful app. Customers will use the app often, and they will soon get accustomed with your brand. From here to using your services often it will be a single step.

Creating a rewards program

The best thing about a mobile app is that you can encourage people to purchase from you a lot easier than you would in your store. Mobile apps are more personal, and that means you get to reward your customers with loyalty points, offer them discounts and let them know about sales solely via the app. It’s a very good system and one that can do wonders for you in the long term.

Increasing your reach

One of the most challenging thing for modern businesses is to reach more customers. By working with a mobile app development company, you get to boost your exposure online. This will help you gain more leads and customers, which in the long term means lots of sales as well.

As you can see, working with a great app development company is very helpful and rewarding. All you have to do is to find the right iOS/ Android app development company and work with them right away. Used properly, a mobile app can help you get more leads, customers and it will boost your earnings quite a bit!

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Source by Manoj Mirchandani

Know About 5 Must-Have Qualities Of a Publisher Representative

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With the progressing world, print and digital media marketing have also greatly evolved. One of the best things which are commendable about the media agency is their frequent interaction with publishers. This is because each and every commerce requires advertising sales representative for marketing and sales promotions as well as for guiding other companies. You will come across a lot of media publishing reps at industry events chat, presenting presentations at seminars and in client meetings selling their company advertise products. Even though, the most excellent Publisher Representative undeniably would have few distinct qualities required to improve the efficiency of the business.

Let’s take a glance at,

5 Essential Traits Of a Publisher Representative

1. Promptly and Precisely Explain About Their Business:

Without using jargons and slangs, a publisher representative describes everything about the business swiftly and plainly to their media buyers whether digital or print media buyers. If there are multiple alternatives they distillate the information in detail for the client to understand everything with greater translucency.

2. Precisely Convey The Company’s Value Proposition:

They have a detailed knowledge of exclusively presenting the USP’s (Unique selling points) of their business product or services by keeping in mind their competitors’ strategy. The one unique thing that can help them outshine is known to them and they put it on the table with an ultimate approach.

3. Understands Clients Business Objectives and Marketing Barrier:

Any blueprint which these media agents use is after a thorough research on the inside story of the buyer’s business. They are astute so by understanding deeply about the previously implemented campaigns, responses, vertical information, and targets.

4. Marketing Specialists in Their Client’s Business:

With a profound understanding of how to deal with buyers of different verticals in a non-creepy manner. They are experts in reading the client’s mind, these sales reps have a comprehensive idea about the buyer’s requirement and can suggest which method would match their product and fiscal estimate the most.

5. Offers Proposals suiting Media Buyer’s Business Demands:

Without forcefully selling proposals that are one-fit-for-all solutions these media agents after meticulously going through the business objectives of buyers suggest the best fit. Also, they ensure them a positive outcome and high return on investment on the basis of their well-planned proposals.

To conclude, Publisher Representatives are very useful for bringing positive returns for media agencies. They have all the necessary attributes and approaches to take your media agency to another level. However, hire media publisher reps after proper evaluation.

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Source by Mike Maughan

Four Questions Online Sellers Need to Ask About E-Commerce Sales Tax

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Over the course of two decades, online sales went from fad to fortune to bust, and have now settled in as part of everyday business for a wide variety of small to medium sized companies. In fact, if you’re selling something then you most likely have an online component – and if you don’t, you’re thinking about it. The wide net that can be cast brings in more buyers from more places, giving sellers the ability to leapfrog to a new level of success.

But just as online sales yield higher income for companies, the states in which they do business expect to be compensated through both sales and income tax. The Internet allows for any combination of cross-border transactions, and as a result states are struggling to collect what is theirs by law.

Enter the sales tax dilemma: State And Local Tax (SALT) codes differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, making for a confusing e-commerce tax landscape. Each local jurisdiction has authority over how electronic sales are taxed, and little coordination exists between states.

To be sure your company is properly withholding and remitting the required sales tax and – from a tax perspective – being as efficient as possible with your cross-border sales operations, there are four questions you should be asking of your CPA and your business leader.

Question 1: How does my state apply sales tax to online transactions?

The challenge with e-commerce sales tax is that each state prescribes its own laws, definitions and formulas in determining taxation. Generally, states may impose sales tax collection obligations on vendors if companies have “nexus” with a state, whereas companies without a substantial presence in a state may not be required to collect sales tax. Complicating issues even further, individual states have great flexibility in determining what defines nexus and what gets taxed if nexus does in fact exist. For example:

In California, sales tax does not apply to the sale or lease of prewritten programs if the product is transferred for download by remote telecommunications from the seller’s place of business to the purchaser’s computer and the purchaser does not obtain tangible personal property (i.e., a CD on which the software program is written).

In Connecticut, canned, or prewritten software is considered tangible personal property and its sale, leasing or licensing (including upgrades) is taxable at 6%. Here’s where it gets tricky, though: if software is downloaded but no tangible property is transferred, the charge assessed is for computer and data processing services. That means a Connecticut retailer of downloaded software is actually a retailer of computer and data processing services and must register, collect, and remit sales tax of 1%.

In Massachusetts, whether delivered through tangible or electronic means, a sale of prewritten (canned) software is a taxable sale and is subject to sales tax.

These are just a few examples; there are more variations across the country. Be sure to identify the states in which you transact business and ask your CPA about the definition of nexus and how taxes are applied to online sales.

Question 2: If I am making a purchase and a vendor does not withhold sales tax, do I still have to pay tax on the transaction?

The short answer is generally “yes;” when sales tax does not apply, often “use” tax comes into play. Let’s take, for example, a software package that is sold by a vendor in Oregon and shipped to a buyer in Massachusetts. The buyer may be charged tax if the vendor has nexus in Massachusetts, however if the vendor does not have nexus in Massachusetts and is not required to collect sales tax, then the burden of paying use tax lies on the Massachusetts purchaser.

Collecting use tax, however, can be difficult for states to track. That makes it easy for it to fall through the cracks and go unpaid today, but as states come together in a unified taxation system there could be a backlash and penalties for noncompliant purchasers.

Question 3: What will a change in e-commerce sales tax mean for my business?

Only time will tell for certain, but creating consistency across all states will have an impact on online purchasing, especially in states which currently have a complex sales tax system. In the late 1990s, when e-commerce was at its peak and Internet “pure play” retailers were enjoying heightened success, studies showed that more aggressive online sales tax would inspire marginal shoppers to abandon online purchasing and head back to their local brick-and-mortar stores.

However, a recent study found that the market’s adjustment to “click and mortar” has lowered sensitivity to tax rates. Businesses with an online transaction element and a physical store are in the safest position: “Negative effects would be limited to high-tax jurisdictions…online companies would see an overall decrease in sales, but it would be far less than what was previously expected. “Pure play” companies would be the most harmed, especially if they are currently only able to stay in business as a result of demand for their tax-free goods.”

States, therefore, are being hurt the most by the current system and should be mobilized to achieve uniformity. After all, retail e-commerce sales in Q407 alone totaled $36.2 billion, a drastic leap since Q402, when the same sales were at $14.3 billion. States have the most to gain by collecting taxes in such a powerful marketplace, and they are motivated to get a more enforceable system in place.

Question 4: How will I know what changes are coming?

Easy enough: keep in touch with your CPA. But there are also organizations that are proactively pursuing uniformity. To keep abreast of developments, check in with:

• Streamlined Sales Tax Project (SSTP), which follows a mission of radically simplifying sales and use taxes. SSTP has 17 full member states, and nearly all 50 states are involved on some level. In addition to the uniform definitions for taxable goods and services, simplification of tax rates and reducing the compliance burdens for businesses, the SSTP promotes an Amnesty program for unpaid sales and use tax, which can be applied to sellers in states that agree to conform to uniform standards going forward. You can find more information at http://www.streamlinedsalestax.org.

• The Multistate Tax Commission (MTC) is an intergovernmental state tax agency which works on behalf of states and taxpayers to administer tax laws that apply to multistate and multinational enterprises. Nearly all states support the MTC on some level, and the website provides ongoing updates on activities around nexus uniformity, court cases, and legislation. More on the MTC is at http://www.mtc.gov.

Download speeds are getting faster, mobile phone transactions are a reality, and soon buyers will be able to make purchases with a click of their television remote. All these advances – and the sheer size of the e-commerce market – mean that at some point a uniform approach to sales tax may take a front seat at the national level. Stay informed of developments, arm yourself and your business with the knowledge to conduct transactions which are compliant with state laws and regulations across state borders, and take small comfort that a simpler system may lay ahead.

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Source by Rosanna DiFilippo

ARM Linux Booting Process

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This will be a series of articles explaining how Linux kernel boots up on ARM architecture. This is part one.

ARM Linux Boot Process:

We will explain boot process of AT91RM9200 system-on-chip, built around the ARM920T ARM Thumb processor. Kwickbyte builds an embedded board called kb9202 based on AT91RM9200. We will take this board as an example and see how Linux boots up on this board.

Before you start reading this you need to read AT91RM9200 data sheet (specification).

You also need to read ARM Architecture Reference Manual for better understanding the boot process.

Components in Linux Boot Process:

Linux boot process involves the following components.

Bootloader

Kernel Image

Root Filesystem

Before we see how the above components work, the following is the call flow of Linux Kernel boot process for arm architecture. This gives a big picture on whole Linux boot process. We use U-boot bootloader.

ARM Linux Boot Process: Big Picture

U-boot:

_start (cpu/arm920t/start.S)

start_code (cpu/arm920t/start.S)

start_armboot (lib_arm/board.c)

board_init (board/kb9202/kb9202.c)

timer_init (cpu/arm920t/at91/timer.c)

serial_init (drivers/serial/at91rm9200_usart.c)

main_loop (lib_arm/board.c)

Now u-boot is up and running and is in u-boot prompt and ready to accept commands. Assume that kernel image is loaded into RAM and issued bootm command.

do_bootm (common/cmd_bootm.c)

bootm_start (common/cmd_bootm.c)

bootm_load_os (common/cmd_bootm.c)

do_bootm_linux (lib_arm/bootm.c)

stext (linux/arch/arm/kernel/head.S)

Control is given to linux.

Linux Kernel:

stext (arch/arm/kernel/head.S:78)

__lookup_processor_type (arch/arm/kernel/head-common.S:160)

__lookup_machine_type (arch/arm/kernel/head-common.S:211)

__create_page_tables (arch/arm/kernel/head.S:219)

__arm920_setup (arch/arm/mm/proc-arm920.S:389)

__enable_mmu (arch/arm/kernel/head.S:160)

__turn_mmu_on (arch/arm/kernel/head.S:205)

__switch_data (arch/arm/kernel/head-common.S:20)

start_kernel (init/main.c:529)

start_kernel (init/main.c:529)

tick_init(kernel/time/tick-common.c:413)

setup_arch (arch/arm/kernel/setup.c:666)

setup_machine (arch/arm/kernel/setup.c:369)

lookup_machine_type ( )

setup_command_line (init/main.c:408)

build_all_zonelists (mm/page_alloc.c:3031)

parse_args (kernel/params.c:129)

mm_init (init/main.c:516)

mem_init (arch/arm/mm/init.c:528)

kmem_cache_init (mm/slab.c, mm/slob.c, mm/slub.c)

sched_init (kernel/sched.c)

init_IRQ (arch/arm/kernel/irq.c)

init_timers (kernel/timer.c:1713)

hrtimers_init (kernel/hrtimer.c:1741)

softirq_init (kernel/softirq.c:674)

console_init (drivers/char/tty_io.c:3084)

vfs_caches_init (fs/dcache.c:2352)

mnt_init (fs/namespace.c:2308)

init_rootfs ()

init_mount_tree (fs/namespace.c:2285)

do_kern_mount (fs/namespace.c:1053)

set_fs_pwd(fs/fs_struct.c:29)

set_fs_root(fs/fs_struct.c:12)

bdev_cache_init (fs/block_dev.c:465)

chrdev_init (fs/char_dev.c:566)

signals_init (kernel/signal.c:2737)

rest_init (init/main.c:425)

kernel_thread (431, arch/arm/kernel/process.c:388)

kernel_thread() creates a kernel thread and control is given to kernel_init().

kernel_init (431, init/main.c:856)

do_basic_setup (888, init/main.c:787)

init_workqueues (789, kernel/workqueue.c:1204)

driver_init (793, drivers/base/init.c:20)

do_initcalls (796, init/main.c:769) /* Calls all subsytems init functions */

prepare_namespace (906, init/do_mounts.c:366)

initrd_load (399, init/do_mounts_initrd.c:107)

rd_load_image (117, init/do_mounts_rd.c:158) /* if initrd is given */

identify_ramdisk_image (179, init/do_mounts_rd.c:53)

handle_initrd (119, init/do_mounts_initrd.c:37) /*if rd_load_image is success */

mount_block_root (45, init/do_mounts.c:233)

do_mount_root (247, init/do_mounts.:218)

mount_root (417, init/do_mounts.c:334) /* if initrd not given */

mount_block_root (359, init/do_mounts.c:233)

do_mount_root (247, init/do_mounts.c:218)

init_post (915, init/main.c:816)

run_init_process (847, init/main.c:807)

kernel_execve (810, arch/arm/kernel/sys_arm.c:81)

User Space

init() /*userspace /sbin/init */

Bootloader:

A bootloader is a small program which will load the kernel image into RAM and boots up the kernel image. This is also called bootstrap as it brings(pulls) up system by loading an operating system. Bootloader starts before any other software starts and initializes the processor and makes cpu ready to execute a program like an operating system. Most processors have a default address from which the first bytes of code are fetched upon power is applied or board is reset. Hardware designers use this information to store the bootloader code at that address in ROM or flash. Since it should initialize the cpu and should run a program which is located at architecture specific address bootloaders are highly processor specific and board specific. Every embedded board comes with a bootstrap to download the kernel image or standalone application into the board and start executing the kernel image or application. Bootloader will be executed when power is applied to a processor board. Basically it will have some minimal features to load the image and boot it up.

It is also possible to control the system using a hardware debug interface such as JTAG. This interface may be used to write the boot loader program into bootable non-volatile memory (e.g. flash) by instructing the processor core to perform the necessary actions to program non-volatile memory. Generally done for first time to download the basic bootloader and for some recovery process. JTAG is a standard and popular interface provided by many board vendors. Some micro controllers provide special hardware interfaces which can’t be used to take arbitrary control of a system or directly run code, but instead they allow the insertion of boot code into bootable non-volatile memory (like flash memory) via simple protocols. Then at the manufacturing phase, such interfaces are used to inject boot code (and possibly other code) into non-volatile memory. After system reset, the micro controller begins to execute code programmed into its non-volatile memory, just like usual processors are using ROMs for booting. In many cases such interfaces are implemented by hardwired logic. In other cases such interfaces could be created by software running in integrated on-chip boot ROM from GPIO pins.

There are some other third party bootloaders available which provide rich set of features and easy user interface. You can download these third party bootloaders into board and can make them default bootloaders for your board. Generally bootloaders provided by board vendors are replaced with these third party bootloader. There are a quite few third party boolader available and some of them are open source (or free bootloaders) and some are commercial. Some of them are Das U-Boot, Red boot, GRUB (for desktops), LILO, Loadlin,, bootsect-loader, SYSLINUX, EtherBoot, ELILO.

We will take U-boot boot loader as our boot loader. U-boot is the widely used boot loader in embedded systems. We will explain code from the u-boot-2010.03 source. You can download U-boot from the following site. http://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot

How U-boot is built:

Based on the configuration of U-boot, all the assembly files (.S) and C files (.c) are compiled using cross compiler which is built for a particular architecture and object files(.o) will be generated. All these object files are linked by linker and an executable file will be created. An object file or executable file is a collection of sections like.text,.data,.bss etc. Object files and executable files have a file format like elf. All the sections of the object files will be arranged in the executable file based on a script called linker script. This script tells where all the sections are to be loaded in the memory when it runs. Understanding this script is very important to know how boot loader and kernel are composed and how different sections of boot loader or kernel are loaded in the memory.

Generally, when a program is run (executed) a loader reads executable file and loads different sections of the executable file in the specified memory location and starts executing the start function(entry point) specified in the linker script. But, if you want to run(load) a boot loader there will not be any loader to load(basically to understand the file format) different sections of executable file into the memory. Then you need to use a tool called objcopy which will take all sections from the executable file and create a binary file which doesn’t have any file format. This binary file can be loaded into the memory and executed or can be written in to the ROM at a particular address (specific to the architecture) which will be executed by cpu when power is applied to the board.

Assume that based on the U-boot configuration all files are compiled and object files are created. U-boot makefile uses the following linker script (specific to architecture) to build an executable file.

File: cpu/arm920t/u-boot.lds

32 OUTPUT_FORMAT(“elf32-littlearm”, “elf32-littlearm”, “elf32-littlearm”)

33 OUTPUT_ARCH(arm)

34 ENTRY(_start)

35 SECTIONS

36 {

37. = 0x00000000;

38

39. = ALIGN(4);

40.text:

41 {

42 cpu/arm920t/start.o (.text)

43 *(.text)

44 }

4546. = ALIGN(4);

47.rodata: { *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(SORT_BY_NAME(.rodata*))) }

48

49. = ALIGN(4);

50.data: { *(.data) }

51

52. = ALIGN(4);

53.got: { *(.got) }

54

55. =.;

56 __u_boot_cmd_start =.;

57.u_boot_cmd: { *(.u_boot_cmd) }

58 __u_boot_cmd_end =.;

59

60. = ALIGN(4);

61 __bss_start =.;

62.bss (NOLOAD): { *(.bss). = ALIGN(4); }

63 _end =.;

64 }

OUTPUT_FORMAT in line #32 specify the file format of the executable file. Here the executable file format is elf32 and endianness is little endian. OUTPUT_ARCH in line # 33 specify the architecture on which this code runs. ENTRY in line #34 specifies the start function(entry point) of u-boot program. Here the entry point is _start.

SECTIONS in line #35 defines how different sections are mapped in the executable file. Loader uses the addresses specified in this section to load different section of the program into the memory.

‘.’ in the line #37 specifies the start address where the following sections should be loaded. In this case start address is 0x00000000. After this in line #39 the memory is aligned by 4 bytes and the.text section follows in the line #40.

40.text:

41 {

42 cpu/arm920t/start.o (.text)

43 *(.text)

44 }

At the ‘.’ position (0x00000000) the code in the cpu/arm920t/start.o is mapped and follows the code that is there in.text sections of all other object (.o) files. cpu/arm920t/start.o contains the _start() function(in assembly language) which is entry point of this program.

Now the ‘.’ will be at 0x00000000 + sizeof (.text). Again memory is aligned by 4 bytes and.rodata section follows in line #47.

. = ALIGN(4);

47.rodata: { *(SORT_BY_ALIGNMENT(SORT_BY_NAME(.rodata*))) }

.rodata sections from all objects files are mapped at this address. Follows the.data and.git sections.

49. = ALIGN(4);

50.data: { *(.data) }

51

52. = ALIGN(4);

53.got: { *(.got) }

Each U-boot command is an object of type ‘cmd_tbl_t’ which contains command name, help string and function pointer to be executed when this command is run. All these command objects are placed in the memory sequentially. Each of this command object is built into an U-boot defined section called.u_boot_cmd in the object file. These all.u_boot_cmd sections are placed in the memory after the above sections(.data and.git).

. =.;

56 __u_boot_cmd_start =.;

57.u_boot_cmd: { *(.u_boot_cmd) }

58 __u_boot_cmd_end =.;

__u_boot_cmd_start contains the start of the commands objects and __u_boot_cmd_end contains the end of the command objects.

And next follows the.bss (uninitialized global variables) sections.

60. = ALIGN(4);

61 __bss_start =.;

62.bss (NOLOAD): { *(.bss). = ALIGN(4); }

63 _end =.;

__bss_start points to the.bss start address and _end contains the end of the all sections.

Using this linker script linker will generate an executable file called u-boot. Objcopy tool is used to generate a binary file from the u-boot executable file.

u-boot.bin: u-boot

$(OBJCOPY) ${OBJCFLAGS} -O binary $

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Source by Raghu Bharadwaj

The Advantages of Network Monitoring Tools and Applications

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The utilization of properly configured network monitoring tools and applications can be used to proactively monitor, maintain, support and help stabilize your technical systems around the clock with little or no manual intervention required. As such, serious potential problems can be rapidly identified before they turn into critical issues that may affect the stability of your entire infrastructure or company. For example, disk utilization can be monitored with user-definable alerts configured to be delivered directly to your system administrator or network support engineer only when certain thresholds are met and/or exceeded so that a server crash can often be avoided or potentially anticipated with enough to advert a potential disastrous situation.

Disk utilization is just one of hundreds of components that can be actively and proactively monitored by some of the more robust network monitoring applications and network management tools currently available in our marketplace. In addition, there are many items and services that should be regularly monitored to ensure the optimal uptime and optimization of your network environment. These items typically include:

– Device Availability

– Critical Application/Service Status

– Disk Utilization

– Memory Utilization

– Response Time Monitoring

– Back-up log checks

– Anti-virus log checks

– Event Log Monitoring

– Monitoring custom performance parameters

– Server health check and analysis of key trends

– Critical Alert Notification

– Asset Tracking

– Remote Access

With all the detailed data that is captured on a daily basis, detailed and comprehensive reports can be quickly created and may be used by your management team and associates to help support your corporate and strategic planning, budgeting process and formulation, as well as enhance your regulatory compliance efforts

Be proactive, implement a comprehensive 24/7 monitoring solution in your infrastructure environment today and sleep easier at night!

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Source by James Eglin

Simple Suggestions To Market Your Website Properly

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Marketing is important for the branding of your business, as it is a concept that grabs the attention of the audience. It is not about the products you make in your production house, but about the stories, you tell that keep your customers for life. Though it is half-done without research and complete knowledge about your audience as if you don’t have it, so, it’s like driving with closed eyes. If you are a novice and don’t have enough knowledge regarding the same, so, here we jotted down some most effective tips and techniques that help you market your business properly. So, what are we waiting for? Scroll down to raise the curtain out of the concept.

  • Start With A Website: Marketing and design both complement each other and one is incomplete in the absence of the other. Marketing without having a website is lifeless and a website without marketing is completely mute. It is the window of your business that keeps it fresh, refreshing and connected with the audience. So, if you want to be in the market, start with the designing of your website.
  • Don’t Forget SEO: SEO is all about attracting the attention of the search engines as well as the audience. It’ll help you leave your best foot forward for the audience that keeps them connected with your brand and give them a reason to love you. SEO will lead the right direction to your website and make it possible for you to reach the top of the search results.
  • Create The Content: Your marketing strategy without content is like a dessert without sugar. Therefore, you should create unique content that helps the search engines crawl your website and improve its ranking. Also, it plays a vital role in keeping your audience and gives them a reason to get back to you over and over again.
  • Make Sure You Go Social: A good marketing strategy may attract audiences to your website, but social media is the platform that keeps them to your company. It’ll help you understand their needs better that further make it easier for you to serve the best they deserve. So, it is important for you all to create your social presence that keeps your clients happy and satisfied.
  • Don’t Underestimate The Power Of Pictures: A picture worth a thousand words and have the power to leave a better impact than any other form of marketing. Also, it is the only thing that gives your audience a reason to shop your product and service.
  • Audit With The Team: Auditing of your website is also important, as it will help you keep your eyes on the progress, so, you can modify your strategy accordingly. It’ll increase your chances of getting the results and help you solve the problems if any.

These are a few tips and techniques that proved to be beneficial for marketing your website properly. If you still face any problem, don’t hesitate to hire an expert or a well-reputed SEO Company, as they’ll make it easier for you to attain objectives like a pro.

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Source by Gunjan Singh